Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media

Vol. 2, 01 March 2023

Open Access | Article

The Influence of Individual Differences of Chinese Learners of German on Their Choices of Internship

Nianyu Shi * 1
1 Guangdong University of Foreign Studies South China Business College, Liangtian Middle Road, Guangzhou, China

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Advances in Humanities Research, Vol. 2, 64-74
Published 01 March 2023. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by EWA Publishing
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation Nianyu Shi. The Influence of Individual Differences of Chinese Learners of German on Their Choices of Internship. LNEP (2023) Vol. 2: 64-74. DOI: 10.54254/2753-7048/2/2022338.


This study aims to explore the influence of individual differences on the internship choices of Chinese undergraduate students in German major and to provide better career service suggestions targeting at foreign language students. This study has significant implications, considering the challenges that final-year undergraduate students in German are faced with and the limited number of previous studies which address these issues. The current study interviewed 23 third-year undergraduates majoring in German to investigate their internship choices and experience, as well as individual differences including language learning motivation, anxiety and character. Only four of them were engaged in German-related internships, eleven were engaged in internships that are not German-related, and eight had no internships yet. Fifteen of them believe that motivation can improve their academic performance. It can be seen that students with integrative motivation will be engaged in German-related internships. Twelve people believe that anxiety has a positive impact on German learning, and one third of whom believe that anxiety improves their German performance to a certain extent, which promotes them to be engaged in German-related internships. However, the influence of character on German learning is uncertain. The results revealed a direct influence of learning motivation on interviewees’ choice of German-related internships, indirect influence of learning anxiety, and no relationship between character and internship choices. This study has implications for better career support to German-major undergraduate students.


motivation, anxiety, German major, character, internship


1. Huang, Z. (2017). Analysis of the impact of current economic development on college students’ employment situation. Economic Research Guide, 23, 67–68.

2. Guo, K. (2011). Employment survey and future demand forecast of minor languages in recent two years. Journal of Lanzhou institute of education, 27(4), 93–97.

3. Shoenfelt, E. L., Stone, N. J., & Kottke, J. L. (2013). Internships: An established mechanism for increasing employability. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 6(1), 24–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iops.12004

4. Aeschlimann, B., Herzog, W., & Makarova, E. (2016). How to foster students’ motivation in mathematics and science classes and promote students’ STEM career choice. A study in swiss high schools. International Journal of Educational Research, 79, 31–41. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2016.06.004

5. Xu, R. (2006).The effect of college students' consistency between major,career choice and career orientation on academic motivation.[Master’s thesis, Northeast Normal University].

6. Yan, J., & Yang, J.,& Pang, X. (2015). On the influence of the consistency of specialty, career choice and career tendency on learning motivation of medical college students. Course Education Research,2,239–240.

7. Sternberg, R. J. (2003). Implications of the theory of successful intelligence for career choice and development. Journal of Career Assessment, 11(2), 136–152.

8. Grisanzio, K. A., Goldstein-Piekarski, A. N., Wang, M. Y., Ahmed, A. P. R., Samara, Z., & Williams, L. M. (2018). Transdiagnostic symptom clusters and associations with brain, behavior, and daily function in mood, anxiety, and trauma disorders. JAMA psychiatry, 75(2), 201–209.

9. Liu, P., & Liu, Q., & Pan, C. (2021). Mediating role of career choice anxiety in the influence of state trait anxiety level on career choice of nursing students in higher vocational colleges. Nursing Practice and Research, 14, 64–67.

10. Karaoglu, N., & Şeker, M. (2010). Anxiety and depression in medical students related to desire for and expectations from a medical career. West Indian Median, 59(2), 196.

11. Laschinger, H. K., & Boss, M. W. (1984). Learning styles of nursing students and career choices. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 9(4), 375–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.1984.tb00386.x

12. Shi, T. (2009). Research on the relationship between College Students' cognitive style and career choice. [Master’s thesis, Shandong Normal University].

13. Tao, Y. (2020). A Study on The Influence of Secondary Vocational Tourism Students' Personality Traits on Their Choice of Graduation Destination. [Master’s thesis, Shandong Normal University].

14. Dam, F. V. (2009). Character and the Career. English Text Construction, 2(1), 91–110.

15. Wang, N., Jome, L. M., Haase, R. F., & Bruch, M. A. (2006). The role of personality and career decision-making self-efficacy in the career choice commitment of college students. Journal of Career Assessment, 14(3), 312–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072706286474.

16. Wang, F., & Shi, Y. (2009). Investigation and research on the influence of students' personality on vocational interest in higher vocational colleges. Journal of Changchun University of Technology, 6, 11–12.

17. Gardner, R. C., & Labert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House.

18. Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold Publishers.

19. Gardner, R. C., Tremblay, R. R., & Masgoret, A. M. (1997). Towards a full model of second language learning: An empirical investigation. Modern Language Journal, 81(3), 344 –362.

20. Sun, Y. (2007). A study on the social and psychological environment of foreign language classroom learners in Chinese universities. [Doctoral dissertation, Huazhong University of science and technology].

21. Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

22. Williams, M., & Burden. R. L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0889-4906(01)00011-4.

23. Wang, Z. (2006). Research and comment on the extended model of SLA classical motivation theory. Journal of Changzhou Vocational College of Information Technology, 4, 74–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1672-2434.2006.04.028

24. Dörnyei, Z. (2009). 2. The L2 Motivational Self System. In Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Multilingual Matters. 9–42.

25. Higgens, E. T. (1998). Promotion and prevention: Regulatory focus as a motivational principle. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 1–46. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60381-0

26. Dörnyei, Z. (1994a). Teaching and researching motivation. Harlow, UK: Longman.

27. Dörnyei, Z. (1994b). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 273–284. http://eea.gd.gov.cn.

28. Peng, J. (2003). Research on Japanese learning motivation and learning effect of professional and non professional students.Educational research of Tsinghua University.12,122–126.

29. Wang, W., & Peng, J. (2005). A quantitative study on the types and intensity of Japanese learning motivation of non professional college students. Japanese learning and research.6, 40–44,48.

30. Jiang Qingrong (2006). Investigation and analysis on Japanese learning motivation of Japanese majors. Journal of Changzhou Institute of Technology, 6, 117–120.

31. Yang, H. (2014). The influence of self - esteem and learning motivation on Japanese Majors' learning anxiety. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 6, 75–82.

32. Zhao, D., & Xie, Y. (2013). A study on the correlation between Japanese learners' learning motivation and anxiety –Also on the necessity of implementing cooperative learning. Journal of Tianjin Foreign Studies University, 3, 53–58.

33. Alpert, R., & Haber, R. N. (1960). Anxiety in academic achievement situations. The Journal of abnormal and social psychology, 61(2), 207.

34. Scovel, T. (1978). The effect of affect on foreign language learning: a review of the anxiety research. Language Learning, 28(1), 129–142. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1978.tb00309.x

35. Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125–132.

36. Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (Eds.). (1991). Language Anxiety: From anxiety and research to classroom implications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

37. Horwitz, E. K. (2000). Horwitz comments: It ain’t over’ til it’s over: On foreign language anxiety, first language deficits, and the confounding of variables. The Modern Language Journal, 84(2), 256–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00067

38. Horwitz, E. K. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 112–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0267190501000071

39. Horwitz, E. K. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching, 43, 154–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S026144480999036X

40. Spielmann, G., & Radnofsky, M. L. Learning language under tension : New directions from a qualitative study.The Modem Language Journal, 2001, 85(2), 259–278.

41. Papi, M. (2010). The L2 motivational self system, L2 anxiety, and motivated learning behavior: A structural equation modeling approach. System, 38(3), 467–479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2010.06.011

42. Marcos–Llinás, M., & Garau, M. J. (2009). Effects of language anxiety on three proficiency‐level courses of Spanish as a foreign language. Foreign Language Annals, 42(1), 94–111.

43. Jung, C. G. (1923). Psychological types (HG Baynes, Trans.). London: Kegan Paul.

44. Busch. D. (1986). Introversion-extroversion and the EFL proficiency of Japanese students. Language Learning, 32, 109–132.

45. Wang, X. (2000). On the influence of personality tendency on english learning foreign language teaching, 4, 17–21.

46. Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford:Oxford University Press.

47. http://eea.gd.gov.cn

48. Wu, Chao. (2011). Learner's personality and second language acquisition China after school education, 6, 89.

49. Guo, K. (2011). Employment survey and future demand forecast of minor languages in recent two years. Journal of Lanzhou institute of education, 27(4), 93–97.

50. Yi, Q., & Gong, J., & Fan, Yu., & Huang, Hong. (2014). An investigation report on the employment prospect and current situation of German and other small language students in Colleges and universities. Human resource management, 11, 239–-241.

Data Availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Authors who publish this series agree to the following terms:

1. Authors retain copyright and grant the series right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this series.

2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the series's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this series.

3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See Open Access Instruction).

Volume Title
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Educational Innovation and Philosophical Inquiries (ICEIPI 2022), Part I
ISBN (Print)
ISBN (Online)
Published Date
01 March 2023
Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media
ISSN (Print)
ISSN (Online)
© 2023 The Author(s)
Open Access
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Copyright © 2023 EWA Publishing. Unless Otherwise Stated