Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Educational Innovation and Philosophical Inquiries

    Conference Date







    978-1-83558-063-9 (Print)

    978-1-83558-064-6 (Online)

    Published Date



    Enrique Mallen, Sam Houston State University

    Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia


  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231349

    Three Applications of the Anchoring Effect

    Many heuristics in behavioural economics play important roles in decision-making. The anchoring effect is one of these heuristics which influence people’s decisions in different fields. Through qualitative analysis and case analysis, this paper aims to introduce the applications of the anchoring effect in various situations. And according to the influence of anchoring effect on decision making in online auctions, court, and Marketing, it analyses how the anchoring effect affects people’s decisions and also how to avoid the deviation caused by anchoring effect. The analysis proves that anchoring affects people’s decision-making in different situations to a certain extent, and makes biased decisions without people realizing it. he analysis also shows that biased decisions can be avoided in different ways. There are different ways in which people can gain more perspectives and information in their lives, while thinking about how to create excellent self-generated anchors to help escape the effects of anchoring.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231391

    Cyber-Attack Regulation: Issues and Advances in International Law

    With the development of network technology, cyber-attacks and cyber wars are likely to become new forms of warfare that endanger world peace. The current international law has difficulties in the definition of national sovereignty, the identification of national responsibility and the exercise of the right of self-defense when cyber-attacks occur. The international community needs to supplement and improve the existing rule system as soon as possible and impose stronger legal constraints on transnational cyber-attacks. Some measures can be taken to solve this problem. Firstly, countries around the world should be promoted to reach a consensus on the legal concept of “cyber sovereignty”. Secondly, the applicable conditions of the current law need to be clarified. That is to say, the national responsibility for cyber-attacks and a clearer interpretation of “threat or use of force” and “armed attack” should be clarified. Meanwhile, the circumstances and methods of exercising the right of self-defense should be clarified when a cyber-attack is encountered. Thirdly, new rules of international law and relevant international soft laws should be created to solved these problems.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231350

    The Influence of Stress Position on English Vowel Pronunciation and Its Significance for Phonological Acquisition of Chinese Students

    Pronunciation is an important part of English learning. Vowel pronunciation, in particular, is an obstacle that learners often encounter. Various literature and experiments have suggested that when Chinese students learn English, they often make pronunciation deviations or errors because of the differences between their native vowels and English vowel pronunciation. Therefore, it is of far-reaching significance to study the influence of the position of stress in words on the pronunciation of English vowels. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of the position of stress in words on the pronunciation of English vowels, and to apply the results to the acquisition of English pronunciation by Chinese students. Through data and information analysis, a method is expected to be found to improve the quality of English pronunciation acquisition, and provide theoretical and practical support for English teaching. The results of this study show that the stress position in a word has a certain influence on the pronunciation of English vowels, and the pronunciation of vowels in different positions is obviously different, through which practical suggestions for Chinese students' English pronunciation acquisition can be provided, such as more targeted training for different vowel pronunciation.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231351

    Exploring the Organic Integration of Games and English Education in Upper Primary School

    Game-based teaching is a proven teaching method, and it has received widespread attention in recent years. However, its promotion and application has not been as successful as it should be. Another major aspect here, in addition to the basic principles and game play that need to be met by game-based teaching itself, is that it is constrained by objective conditions. Based on an analysis of the current constraints on games, this study presents the ideological underpinnings of game-based teaching and proposes some specific game scenarios that are consistent with the principles of game-based teaching. These scenarios are analyzed and the necessity and correctness of implementing game-based teaching in the upper primary English classroom is concluded. The findings of the article show that the integration of games with English language education in the upper primary school is effective. The article also provides an outlook on how games can be integrated with the teaching of English in upper primary schools and looks at future trends.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231356

    Analysis of Anxiety of Parents and Students after the Implementation of the Double Reduction Policy

    The “double reduction” policy has been implemented since 2021 and has been in development for nearly two years. During these two years, many students and parents have undergone changes due to “double reduction”. This article helps more people understand the impact of the “double reduction” policy on primary and secondary school students, as well as their parents, and helps them understand why students and parents feel anxious about this policy. It aims to analyze the anxiety changes of primary and secondary school students, as well as their parents, after experiencing “double reduction”, and the data analyzed are all secondary resources. These second-hand materials are all from academic databases. After analyzing the literature, this article found that after experiencing the “double reduction” policy, the academic pressure of primary school students and the anxiety level of their parents have decreased to a certain extent. For junior high school students, their academic pressure has actually increased. The pressure on parents of junior high school students has also increased with the release of policies. The pressure of parents is reflected in different aspects, such as the future of children and the economy. For these conclusions, the suggestion of this article is that the country can promote policy development from four aspects. These four aspects are the government, schools, parents, and students. The government can collaborate with schools to provide free classes for parents, so that parents can better understand the role of the “double reduction” policy and avoid letting parents’ anxiety affect students’ mood.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231372

    How People Learn: The Measurements of Students’ Learning Process

    The grading system is a technique that can evaluate students’ performances in school by entirely depending on marks. Unfortunately, it is not the best method to measure students’ work. This paper analyzes this system that utilizes the knowledge from behaviorism and cognitivism in both internal and external aspects. Then we discuss three alternatives, including social practice, narrative feedback, and portfolio grading system. Social practice is a technique to evaluate grades by using knowledge in social experience, including doing research or writing papers. Narrative feedback is a type of comment in which teachers provides descriptive details on students’ performances. The portfolio requires students to write research and paper including self-reflection and assignments that professors provide. Each method benefits in various fields. The work concludes that the combination of alternative and traditional assessment methods to evaluate students’ process of learning is the best. It is important for educators to try different approaches and evaluate their effectiveness in supporting learning and growth.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231376

    Different Perceptions of Same Issue by Different Genders on Same Social Media Platform

    During the nineteenth to twenty century males and females have not equal rights to find jobs and attend school. Equality became a hot topic during the nineteenth century. As human gain more knowledge and have more enlightened mind males and females are mainly equal in the legal and moral level. However, males and females still have to face their unequal sides that hide by customs and stereotypes. The chief object of this study is to survey the difference between genders’ opinions towards those two topics on different online platforms. One is male and female received the different treatment during job hunting. Another is the opinions towards women’s behaviors during pregnancy. The method used in the study is known as questionnaire, experiments on mock recruitment, common software surveys and desired pregnancy lifestyles were made to measure this project aim. The authors undertook the experiment to support the hypothesis of in the same type of online platform, males and females have different opinions about the Equality. The authors carried out several studies in questionnaire which have demonstrated that even if man and woman are equal, it’s still not enough to change people’s own minds. All the preliminary results throw light on the nature that even though males and females are essentially equality, but it’s still not strong enough to change the subconsciousness of people.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231380

    Unrealistic Expectations and Compromised Observations in School Mathematics Research

    It is not often acknowledged that educational research increasingly places unrealistic expectations on teachers, especially teachers of mathematics. This paper explores issues relating to idealism within educational research, especially in terms of how it manifests as potentially unrealistic expectations academics may have of, and place on, classroom teachers. The paper draws on reflections from observing an international panel of mathematics education researchers observing classroom teachers at work. It outlines some of the philosophical complications of observations, especially it’s theory-laden nature, and outlines some potential implications such idealism can have for teachers, and how this may be linked to mathematics culture.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231381

    The Significance of Psychoanalysis on Remitting the Effect of COVID-19 on People’s Mental Health

    The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on mental health, highlighting the need for effective approaches to address the psychological distress experienced by individuals. This article explored the potential role of psychoanalysis in supporting individuals' mental well-being during the pandemic. Drawing on insights from previous studies investigating the challenges and future prospects of psychoanalysis, as well as an examination of dream experiences during the pandemic, this article emphasized the importance of integrating experiential and conceptual research to strengthen the scientific foundation of psychoanalysis. It also highlights the need for interdisciplinary collaboration, dialogue among analysts of different orientations, and inclusive publishing practices to enhance the field. The study further underscores the significance of adequate funding for empirical research and the promotion of inclusivity within the field. The article concluded with emphasizing the potential of psychoanalysis in providing a safe space for individuals to explore and process their emotions, understand their experiences, and promote healing and adaptation in the face of challenges after the pandemic. Overall, this article highlights the relevance of psychoanalysis in addressing the mental health repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic and offers valuable insights for mental health professionals and researchers in the field. It also can provide some guidance to the design of family and community intervention programs.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231385

    Cultural Differences, Diagnosis, and the Intervention in Adolescence in Borderline Personality Disorder

    The previous study showed that borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with childhood trauma and developed personality traits into adolescence that could lead to borderline personality disorder. Research also indicated a cultural difference in the psychopathology and diagnosis of borderline personality disorder in both adults and adolescents. A borderline personality disorder is a type of personality disorder that has symptoms around unstable emotions, dissociation and fear of being abandoned. Although having deviant behaviour was a significant risk factor in detecting borderline personality disorder, it could be less potent in non-western cultures like China and India. Merging cultural differences and the criteria of borderline personality disorder could accurately detect borderline personality disorder in adolescence. It helped people intervene and treat it earlier to slow the progression of borderline personality disorder. This study focused on reviewing previous research on cultural differences, detection, prevention, and intervention in adolescents with borderline personality disorder. Cultural differences like different social norms or traditions influence individual identity and interpersonal relationships, which are non-negligible components of the period of adolescence that could induce borderline personality disorder if adolescents have issues with those parts. People need to be aware of the symptoms to intervene in borderline personality disorder in adolescents through multiple treatments with an appropriate plan and management, which should focus on psychotherapy, like dialectic behavioural therapy, supportive psychotherapy, and Mentalization-based therapy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231389

    Research on the Identification of Medical Damage Cases

    Medical disputes are acute social problems caused by many factors. With the further deepening of the reform of the medical system, doctor-patient conflicts have become more prominent, and their common manifestation is the dispute over the attribution of medical accidents. How to prevent disputes, alleviate medical conflicts, properly deal with medical tort cases, and improve and refine the legal mechanism of doctor-patient conflicts are particularly important. For a long time, due to the complex and professional characteristics of medical damage cases and the status difference between doctors and patients, and the application of medical damage compensation law involving a large number of professional and complex evidence issues, it has become the primary problem for the district court to accurately grasp the evidence of the case in medical tort litigation, and rationally use the evidence to make a fair judgment. The crux of medical disputes lies in the evidence problem. In view of the strong professionalism in medical disputes, expert opinions and expert assistants' opinions often become the core evidence, and their accurate examination and judgment become the top priority in the settlement of medical damage cases. At present, the appraisal of medical damage faces many specific difficulties and challenges. Therefore, this paper advocates the introduction of a reasonable dialogue mechanism between technology and rules, such as evidence-based evidence from the medical perspective of technology, auxiliary rules construction.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231390

    Childhood for Sale: Unraveling the Commodification of Children in the Realm of Mengwa-Child Influencers

    The Internet's quick development has given people access to a wider audience. Anyone can use this platform to create their own content as a self-media creator. In November 2021, the General Office of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism issued the "Opinions on Strengthening the Protection of Minors in the Online Cultural Market,” strictly prohibiting the use of "Child Influencers" for profit. Based on this phenomenon, this article focuses on a group of child influencers to explore the impact of children's commercialization on their physical and mental health. Therefore, the psychology of the child can answer this question. Observe their physical and mental health problems in the self-media environment, and understand the new changes of children in the network society. The results found that child influencers who have been exposed to social media for a long time are more likely to have value deviations, anxiety, an obsession with virtual identities, and a tendency to become adults.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231392

    The Changes in Japan's Economic Strength after World War II and Its Impact on Japan-US Bilateral Relations

    After World War II, the bilateral relations between Japan and America has undergone ups and downs. In the early post-war period, the relationship between these two countries was very tense and unfriendly due to the hostile relation. However, after the policies of Japan and America changed when America started occupying and managing Japan, their relationship improved. Japan ushered in an economic miracle of 50 years after the war, one of the most essential reasons for it is the support of America. Also, the growth of the economy has brought Japan more opportunities to cooperate and negotiate with America, and the relationship between the two countries has shifted from unilateral support to competition through cooperation. This paper is mainly focusing on the Impact of Japan's Economy on Japan-US Bilateral Relations. In order to find out the process and changes of the Japan-US Bilateral Relations, this paper analyzed some references about this topic and found out that the economy has deeply influenced the relations between these two countries and Japan's economic miracle and stagnation made America restart locating the diplomatic relationship with Japan. This paper could help scholars have a better understanding of the influences of Japan’s economy on US-Japan Bilateral Relations.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231393

    The Experience of the UK and Japan in Coping with Population Ageing and Its Implications for China

    Population ageing has become a universal world problem, and actively addressing it has been elevated to an important national development strategy. The United Kingdom is the world's first industrialised country and also a country with an ageing population. The UK has accumulated rich experience in coping with the ageing of the population and has suc-cessfully dealt with the issue by formulating and implementing policies to delay the re-tirement age, adjusting immigration policies, and actively using science and technology-related tools. Meanwhile, Japan, as the first country to enter an ageing society, has also achieved good results by establishing a comprehensive policy and regulatory system, for-mulating and implementing initiatives related to the development of human resources for the elderly, and using big data and intelligent robots to actively address the challenges of ageing. Therefore, based on the experiences of the UK and Japan, the study suggests that China can successfully address the challenges of ageing by emphasising the role of tech-nology, promoting digitalisation and enhancing the application of artificial intelligence technologies, building a cultural mindset, policies and institutional networks that are con-ducive to the development of older people's resources, as well as strengthening the plan-ning and top-level design of the elderly sector and establishing a sound legal system to deal with the issue of the ageing population.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231395

    Analysis on the Life Education of Middle School Students

    Education is to care for every life activity of students, and the learning process is a process of enjoying life. Such care is the unity of social value, personal value and the development value of education itself in the practice of life activities. In this educational practice, the value of teachers is realized and the quality of life is improved. Life education is an indispensable part of today's education, and the life education is significant for students in their lives. In order to improve the importance of life education and improve the effect of life education of today's students, this paper expounds the problems existing in life education for Chinese students today. And it was analyzes from four aspects: society, school, individual, and family. Finally, some countermeasures are put forward, including that school should carry out the psychology course, perfect the life education system; Society should pay attention to students' life education; Create a positive home environment; Improve the professional quality of teachers, change some teaching methods.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231399

    A Preliminary Inquiry of Homeschooling Practice Route with Comparative Perspective Between China and America

    As a new form of education, homeschooling can effectively promote the individual development of children and satisfy different groups by providing education with equal opportunities. Although it has a series of problems, such as legalization in China, the growing population still attracts extensive attention of the society. At present, most of the domestic researches in this field remain in the causes of formation, historical background and problem analysis, while having very little discussion on practical issues. The paper uses the literature research method and the comparative method to describe and analyze the history, laws and regulations, learning conditions, reasons for choosing homeschooling, and problems of homeschooling in China and America. Based on China’s national conditions, the paper refers to the advantages and disadvantages of American homeschooling, and proposes a specific implementation plan from the perspective of national legislation. By clarifying the status of homeschooling in the law and constructing a sound managing and guiding system, homeschooling in China can become more regularized and developed.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231401

    An Overview of China’s Vocational Education Practices and Implementation Policies from 2018 to 2022

    China has given secondary vocational education more and more priority in recent years. In China’s education community, topics such as student types and training methods are frequently discussed. The nation has released an increasing number of secondary vocational education policies in recent years. This study examines the secondary vocational education policies passed by The State Council of China from 2018 to 2022 in an effort to better understand the development orientation of China’s secondary vocational education. 364 policies pertaining to secondary vocational education were acquired and coded by Nvivo screening. A questionnaire was created based on the coding results, and it was broken down into six dimensions: the professional teaching degree in the classroom, Internet use, “1+x” certificate penetration level, educational resources, the school’s promotion of students’ overall development, and the integration of industry and education. At the same time, special education, which involves the education of the disabled but is rarely included in the policy, is treated as a separate component. For the questionnaire survey, 153 secondary vocational students in total were chosen and dispersed around the nation. Spss and Amos tested the questionnaire. The test passed, and more analysis of the survey results was done.It is determined that while policy implementation is generally going well, there are still issues with student development overall, certificate penetration, and the integration of business and education. This study suggests remedies based on this, such as expanding practical operation training and enhancing school-business collaboration.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231405

    ‘Reduction’ or Restrain? Social Reproduction in China’s Compulsory Education under the ‘Double Reduction’ Policy

    The ‘double reduction’ policy was issued in 2021 in China as a means of reducing students’ schoolwork and restricting extracurricular tutoring, thereby alleviating students’ pressure and promote education equality. This paper investigates whether this policy eases educational inequality and promotes social mobility, or it reinforces social reproduction and intensifies social stratification. This paper begins with a brief introduction to China’s compulsory education and the background of the ‘double reduction’ policy. Afterwards, core and related theories of social reproduction are introduced and critically analysed. According to the theories and the context, it is examined how reproduction occurs through China’s compulsory education. Subsequently, a review is conducted of the current impact of this policy, particularly on the acquisition of educational resources by students from different backgrounds. Schools, families, and tutoring institutions are considered the main fields where reproduction take place. It turns out that the ‘double reduction’ policy to students, appears not only as a burden-reduction mechanism, but more like a restriction that hinders the acquisition of necessary assistance by ordinary families while ensuring the availability of high-quality resources for elite families, thus marginalising education resources, privatising education, and perpetuating class privileges among elite families.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231407

    Analyzing Ecological Factors Leading to Similarities and Differences in Mathematics Learning in Public and International High Schools in China

    There are frequent discussions about China’s public and international high school educational systems nowadays. This paper will discuss ecological factors that lead to the similarities and differences between the subject of mathematics in the two educational systems. In this work, the theory of behavioristic, cognitive, and constructive learning approaches will be mentioned to analyze the existence of the two educational systems. Then, this paper will analyze how teachers’ teaching habits, textbook designs, and family involvement ecologically affect students’ mathematics learning. The paper compares and contrasts public and international educational systems through the lens of analyzing mathematical learning in Chinese high schools, providing a reference for researchers interested in Chinese education.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/19/20231411

    Unveiling Implicit Ingroup Bias among Chinese Students Pursuing Higher Education Abroad

    This paper examines the role of ingroup bias in the social segregation experienced by Chinese International Students in North America. It proposes a novel approach to utilizing ingroup bias as a framework for analyzing this issue. The experiment uses a regular class setting to measure stress and anxiety levels during self-introductions, varying the ratio of Chinese-to-non-Chinese students (25%, 50%, and 100%). Anticipated outcomes include one optimal result and two alternative results, considering multiple contributing factors. Importantly, this paper offers a fresh perspective on the issue through the lens of ingroup bias and challenges the prevailing macro-perspective in its study.

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