Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the International Conference on Global Politics and Socio-Humanities

    Conference Date







    978-1-83558-359-3 (Print)

    978-1-83558-360-9 (Online)

    Published Date



    Enrique Mallen, Sam Houston State University

    Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia


  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230216

    Vocabulary Learning Strategies of English as a Foreign/Second Language

    English has become the most widely spoken language in the world, and memorizing vocabulary is a fundamental step in acquiring this language. Many English as a foreign language (EFL)/English as a second language (ESL) learners have difficulty remembering new words, so vocabulary learning strategies are studied globally. This literature review examined international research across ages and discussed three learning strategies: the keyword method, pictorial association, and the mind-mapping method. Results suggested that the three learning strategies effectively improved students’ vocabulary recall and retention, and learning strategies help EFL/ESL learners with vocabulary studies.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230226

    The Impact of Age on Short-term Memory

    Short-term memory (STM) temporarily stores sensory events, movements, and cognitive information. Several studies have shown that STM can store previously encountered information as memory. Studies show that as age increases, the STM of the individual decreases; however, there is no precise age division for when the decay of STM occurs. In this study, a method of short-term visual memorization of a random sequence of numbers has been used to study the correlation between age and STM, and the age of decay of STM. The result of this study has shown a significant difference in the number of digits recalled between the age groups 1-12 and 65 and above and age groups 13-17 and 65 and above.Similarly, age groups 1-12 and 18-64 differed significantly. We conclude that the increase in age correlates negatively with short-term memory, where the STM and the ability to recall short items decrease as age increases. Potential genetic and physiological mechanisms of the negative correlation between age and STM are discussed.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230227

    Lack of Sleep among College Students Can Lead to Negative Emotions and Affect Memory

    Sleep deprivation is associated with various disorders in most body systems. College students are one of the most significantly affected groups by sleep deprivation. However, the impact of sleep deprivation on emotions and memory has been fully demonstrated. No researchers have studied whether sleep deprivation causes social anxiety and affects college students' ability to remember words. This study aims to explore the effects of sleep deprivation on emotional control and memory abilities in adolescents. Thirty-four participants were investigated online to collect and evaluate sleep quality, Social anxiety, and vocabulary memory. The questionnaire included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Self Review Anxiety Scale (SAS), and vocabulary memory time under different sleep qualities. Correlation and regression analyses of sleep quality, Social anxiety, and memory foreword ability. There was no significant correlation between sleep deprivation, anxiety, and vocabulary memory. Research has shown that sleep deprivation does not cause stress or affect vocabulary memory. To improve the reliability of current research, future work can increase the sample size.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230225

    The Impact of Social Anxiety on the Teamwork Behaviors in Adolescence

    Research Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent psychological disorders in adolescence, which can essentially limit the effectiveness of social events that can help facilitate peer relationships. This study aims to investigate the effects of social anxiety on between-adolescent relationships, with a particular focus on teamwork behaviors. Methods: The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and the Teamwork Attitude Questionnaire (T-TAQ) were conducted among 45 participants. Results: Our analysis showed no significant correlation between the level of social phobia and teamwork behaviors. Conclusions: We conclude that there is a correlation between social phobia and teamwork performance, while without statistical significance. Future work could improve sample size and optimize T-TAQ to increase the credibility of the present research.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230228

    The Prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Elders in Chongqing, China

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a window to detect dementia, and to screen MCI, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is commonly used. This work investigated the prevalence of MCI in Chongqing elderlies by using MoCA as a tool. One hundred fourteen valid data from older adults (≥ 55 years, 51.75% males) were recruited for this research. Twelve demographic information were collected, and each participant did one of the two versions of MoCA tests (Beijing 7.1, and the optimized version). They were developed based on the Beijing 7.1 version, and four test sections were optimized to adapt to the native speaking and cultural background. Five risky demographic factors were found. The incidence of MCI detected by the optimized MoCA version was lowered to 83.3% compared to 94.4% in the original version, and the naming section was significantly improved. The significant decrease in the overall prevalence indicates that the optimization of the MoCA has, to some extent, made it more suitable for Chongqing elders. Accordingly, we suggest further professional and detailed improvements to MoCA.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230234

    Exploring the Improvement of Chinese Junior High School Students' English Capacities in Oral Speaking

    In today's globalized world, English language proficiency has gained significant importance. However, the emphasis on exam-oriented education in Chinese junior high schools has led to a neglect of students' comprehensive English communication skills, particularly oral speaking abilities. In this research paper, I investigate effective strategies and interventions to enhance English-speaking proficiency among Chinese junior high school students. Through synthesizing existing research, the study aims to identify successful approaches while highlighting gaps for future research. My literature review highlights the critical role of pronunciation in oral English learning. Despite its importance, English pronunciation is often neglected in Chinese education due to the prevailing focus on written test scores. Existing research has explored numerous ways to improve English pronunciation, including incorporating music and utilizing Computer-Assisted Pronunciation Training (CAPT) systems. Moreover, my paper addresses the challenges junior high school students face in developing English speaking skills, such as limited oral English classes and a lack of appropriate teaching materials. Students' lack of interest and anxiety toward verbal English learning further contribute to the problem. To address these issues, this study proposes two main interventions: utilizing music as an auxiliary method in teaching spoken English and employing dubbing apps in English teaching and after-class assignments. Additionally, role-playing activities are suggested to enhance students' enthusiasm for oral English learning. Through interviews with English teachers, this research aims to shed light on effective approaches to improve oral English proficiency among Chinese junior high school students and provide practical insights for language educators.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230235

    Is the Inequality of Education the Main Factor That Causes the Gender Inequality in Different Industries?

    Gender inequality remains a significant issue globally, affecting various aspects of individuals' lives. Despite improvements in educational opportunities for women, gender disparities persist, particularly in the workplace. This study aims to investigate the role of education in contributing to gender inequality in different industries. Data was collected from the United States Census Bureau, including information on education levels, occupational distribution, and gender ratios. Statistical analysis methods, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), were employed to examine the relationship between education and gender inequality. The findings show that while educational attainment has improved for both genders, gender disparities still exist in occupational distribution. Most females remain concentrated in certain industries, such as education, while males dominate fields like management and STEM occupations. These findings highlight the need to address gender inequality beyond educational factors and consider societal and cultural influences. By understanding the complexities of gender inequality, policymakers, and stakeholders can work towards promoting gender equity and equal opportunities for all.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230237

    Comparison of the Chinese and Hungarian Education Systems

    As countries strive to develop competitive, knowledge-based economies, they face the challenges of a rapidly changing global landscape. Understanding the fundamental and different aspects of education systems is of great importance. This paper compares the Chinese and Hungarian higher education systems from the following four main elements: (1) administrative divisions; (2) school systems; (3) educational assessments; (4) challenges in HE. Given that every education system is deeply intertwined with a distinct cultural and social context that shapes its organization and functioning, it is imperative for academics to examine these intricacies when conducting cross-national comparisons carefully. Prior research has exclusively focused on higher education in China and Hungary separately, without comparing the two. Therefore, to understand the factors influencing higher education in Hungary and China, the researcher is prepared to provide valuable insights and more data analysis into the complexities of global education.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230236

    Unraveling Fertility Intention in Highly Populated Chinese Cities: The Role of Working Time and Job Satisfaction

    In 2015, the Chinese Central Government implemented a two-child policy, a family planning policy that encourages each couple to have two children, relaxing previous birth restrictions under the one-child policy. However, the new measures did not result in the expected wave of births. Even after the implementation of the three-child policy in 2020, China’s fertility rate is still 1.3, far below the replacement level. Since the effectiveness of pro-natalist policies such as financial incentives and parental leave in encouraging women to have more children is also questionable, the research intends to propose alternative demographic solutions to raise the total fertility rate. This paper argues for combating working overtime and raising work satisfaction to raise fertility intention for Chinese women in highly populated cities. Obtaining data from questionnaires completed by women in eight megacities in China, the study conducts Spearman Correlation on variables in the data set. Results indicate that women have a large workload each week, relatively positive work satisfaction, and a low desire to have children both currently and prospectively. Meanwhile, correlation analysis suggests a negative correlation between work time and fertility intention. Further investigation on work satisfaction suggests that job security and benefits in government-affiliated institutions influence the number of existing children greatly, while income and promotion opportunities stand out to be the most important factors in impacting both existing and planned child numbers in the significance test. Based on the findings, the study proposes to launch public awareness campaigns, create regulations to enhance equal promotion opportunities in enterprises, and tailor regional initiatives to address local fertility changes. Future studies can expand the scope to include male perspectives to provide a comprehensive understanding of fertility intention in populated cities that have stressful work environments.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230246

    Are Chinese Students Studying in North America More Willing to Make Friends with Chinese People due to Language Problems?

    This work delves into the social interactions of Chinese international students in North America, focusing on the interplay between language proficiency, ingroup bias, and their implications for forging friendships within ethnic communities. The study integrated quantitative and qualitative methodologies, analyzing English proficiency, Big Five Inventory scores, and stress indicators during self-introduction tasks. Initial findings suggest a strong correlation between English proficiency, ingroup bias, and stress levels in self-introduction settings, especially in predominantly non-Chinese audiences. In this work, the potential influence of digital communication platforms like Zoom and inherent biases in self-reported data are also acknowledged as limitations. The research underscores the necessity for higher educational institutions to promote language development and intercultural competence, fostering an inclusive social environment for international students. Through this paper, the author aim to shed light on the complexities of social networking among Chinese international students, offering insights to enhance multicultural understanding and inclusion in academic settings.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230248

    The Effects of Musical Arousal on Adolescence Long-term Memory

    To examine the effects of different music genres on adolescents' long-term memory. Thirty participants were recruited to take part in the study. First, they were given a list of random letter combinations to memorize while listening to a soothing song or fast-paced rap music. After learning for five minutes, they were given some randomly generated arithmetic questions to complete within two minutes. Then, they did a recognition test on the previously memorized words. Results show that the memory-recalling abilities of the participants while listening to rap or soft music are significantly different. Most participants scored higher in tests with soft music than with rap music. The researcher conclude that it would be beneficial for students to do memorization tasks with relaxing background music because soft music could facilitate the process of information encoding and keep them motivated to study for longer, reducing their stress and anxiety. Students should avoid listening to music with a fast, rhythmic beat while memorizing since this type of music appears distractive. Future research could be conducted with a larger sample size.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230260

    Research on the Low Fertility Rate in China

    This paper recognizes the gradual seriousness of China's low fertility problem and its entry into the low fertility trap through the report "2022 World Population Outlook" released by the United Nations and data from the National Bureau of Statistics. This work analyzes the reasons for China's low fertility problem from three aspects: government policies, economic development, and women's rights. And it is believed that government population policies encourage fertility, alleviate people's economic pressure, and help women balance family and work, which are feasible methods to alleviate China's low fertility rate. This article aims to provide a scientific basis for formulating population policies that are in line with China's national conditions, and to provide ideas and methods for solving the problem of low fertility in China.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230262

    Why did the black community strongly oppose the draft conscription during the Vietnam War?

    This paper studies the protests of black groups against the US government draft conscription during the Vietnam War. The paper analyzed the motivations of the people involved in this movement and the reasons for the US government's adoption of the draft by introducing the background of the times and listing real examples. In order to provide readers with a clearer understanding of the situation at that time, the paper recorded speeches by individuals who had witnessed the event, such as Stokely Carmichael and Mohammed Ali, and cited media reports of protests against black groups back then. Finally, the paper summarized the impact of this movement on the United States and the world, as well as its connection with the Northern African soldiers who fought for freedom during the Civil War.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230281

    Cultural Variation in In-group Bias among Chinese International Students

    In-group bias may implicitly affect Chinese international students' social interaction, making it difficult to demonstrate its impact. Thus, this project investigates how in-group bias affects the interactions between Chinese international students and local students. Through a literature review, it is found that people are more likely to discriminate against out-group members than in-group members. To explore the impact of in-group bias, an experiment is designed to measure Chinese students' stress levels when they conduct self-introduction in front of other students. The participants will be divided into three groups with different Chinese to non-Chinese phantom ratios. The participants' stress levels will be assessed through their voice and facial expressions by trained coders. The expected result is that the participants' stress level decreases as the percentage of Chinese phantoms increases.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230286

    The Effect of the Learning Environment on Students’ Anxiety and Depression Levels

    Most people agree that different learning environments can create additional pressure situations for students. This study aims to investigate the effect of the learning environment on the level of social phobia and depression among high school students. The analysis assumes that International Baccalaureate (IB) students have the highest levels of anxiety and depression. The study distributed online anxiety and depression scales to 15 Advanced Placement students, 15 Advanced Level students, and 15 International Baccalaureate students in the same school. After data collection, the data was tested through ANOVA and correlational analysis to compare the scores of students in different learning environments. The study showed no significant differences in student scores across learning environments, but IB students scored higher than AP and Advanced Level students. The researcher concluded that IB students have higher levels of anxiety and depression than those enrolled in Advanced Placement courses and those enrolled at Advanced Level. Future work can increase the sample size of this study, to improve the credibility and significance of the present research.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230290

    "The Pathway from Slavery to Freedom": Frederick Douglass and Black Education in Antebellum America

    This paper investigates the emergence of education for African Americans in the antebellum South through close examination of the pioneering autobiography Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. It highlights two starkly contrasting perspectives on black education in the decades before the Civil War - that of white slaveholders, who considered learning dangerous and likely to incite rebellion amongst slaves, versus the viewpoint of Douglass himself, an enslaved man whose hunger for education was a source of hope and a pathway he imagined could lead to freedom. By conducting a close reading of Douglass's personal philosophy on education while he was still enslaved, this paper aims to illuminate the deep hunger for learning and great risks African Americans were willing to take in order to become literate during the antebellum period, demonstrating how highly they valued education in the context of their oppressive status. It seeks to underline the central role of education in early African American freedom narratives and nascent resistance movements through Douglass's pioneering example.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230293

    Anime “Obsession” and Importance of Environment in Its Formation

    As a novel, developing form of art, anime has a large fan base, 33% of Japanese watch anime in a regular basis, and 27% Americans of age 18-29 find anime “very favorable”. Due to capability of releasing dopamine, people could certainly be addicted to anime. However, there is currently a mixed approach towards the effects watching anime. The paper would propose that the difference displayed between being a addictive viewer, which would further cause a combination of mental illnesses, and being a person who benefits from anime watching can be explained by a difference in transportation, which is determined by the social context they reside in. However, the passage would also explore how environmental impact of anime addiction differ from that of substance addiction. The paper finds that past experience learnt form environment that does not involve in drug intake only influences tendency and amount of drug intake, while not being able to determine the biochemical value of drugs, however, those experience would be able to effectively impact the amount of reward from watching anime. Finally, the passage explains how a reciprocal determinism model, annotated with social contingencies suited to modern Japan society, would potentially explain how a spiral of indulging into an addiction of anime would eventually be formed.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230296

    How Can International Law Better Address Illegal Transnational Drug Trades

    This paper seeks to analyze how international institutions and treaties can effectively suppress the occurrence of transnational drug trade. Different primary and secondary sources regarding current drug-related global conventions and organizations were analyzed to pinpoint reasons for their inadequacy in combatting the international exchange of drugs. We drew upon previous drug-trade cases and examined United Nations (UN) documents to offer a comprehensive solution to the issue. Research has suggested that the responsibility does not lie alone with drug-specialized international corporations: with corruption and money laundering heavily related to the drugs trade, non-drug specialized institutions must collaborate with the former in order to tackle illegal transnational drug trades both regionally and on a global scale. Although efforts have been made to address this issue with the establishment of various conventions and committees, the lack of enforcement, commitment from different States, as well as collaboration between relevant institutions lead to the drug market being a relevant issue in today’s society, threatening the lives of thousands both directly and indirectly. Furthermore, few papers have dedicated attention to international law and illicit drug trafficking.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230306

    Ingroup Bias and Collective Self-esteem of Chinese International Students

    This paper explores the psychological transformation among Chinese students studying internationally in the U.S., focusing on ingroup bias and collective self-esteem. Grounded in the "minority stress theory," we hypothesize that international students display a higher ingroup bias and collective self-esteem, serving as a coping strategy to perceived unwelcome experiences and cultural shifts. The experimental approach compared Chinese students studying abroad in the U.S. and domestic students in China, using tasks centered around the minimal group paradigm, and assessed their group identification, resource allocation, and collective self-esteem. And the results revealed that international students displayed a notable ingroup bias and heightened collective self-esteem when compared to domestic students in China. This suggests that international students might utilize their ingroup affiliation as a buffer against cultural adversities and a source of self-esteem.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/45/20230343

    Relationship Between Otome Games and Female Body Image Anxiety

    Otome game is a kind of role-playing game developed for female players. In the past few years, otome games have become very popular in China, with the number of female players rising rapidly. Although there are previous studies exploring the impacts of otome games to players in real lives, relationship between players’ body image and otome games has never been studied before. During the research, we collected 286 valid responses from both female and male participants in China, including those who play and not play otome games, and then compared their different extent of body image anxiety according to the data. The research found that female players are more likely to have negative attitudes towards their body image, and otome game players’ perception of body image seems to be more likely to be influenced by games. The deeper relationship the players have developed with the fictional character, the more likely their attitudes towards their body image seem to be influenced. Most players think gaming has made them more confident about their body and appearance. The avatar image in the game does not affect the body image of the majority of gamers.

Copyright © 2023 EWA Publishing. Unless Otherwise Stated