Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Educational Innovation and Philosophical Inquiries

    Conference Date







    978-1-83558-059-2 (Print)

    978-1-83558-060-8 (Online)

    Published Date



    Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia

    Enrique Mallen, Sam Houston State University


  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231201

    The Justice of International Treaties and International Organizations

    Nowadays, the international situation is constantly changing. Before the outbreak of COVID-19, intense competition between China and the United States had been taking place in various important fields such as economics, culture, technology, military, and politics. Such vicious competition is highly unfavorable for the World Trade Organization, as it goes against the purpose and treaties of the organization. However, in this event, these so-called purposes and conventions have become ineffective due to the pressure from the United States, the world's largest country. During the pandemic, many countries ignored the regulations of the World Health Organization, damaging its leadership in global health. Currently, even though the pandemic is reasonably under control, the international situation remains chaotic. The most notable is the year-long conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which has disrupted the balance between NATO and Russia. The United Nations and its Charter have limited power to restrain powerful countries, and a UN lacking in impartiality can only be a puppet of some big countries. Therefore, under such international background, This paper starts with international organizations and treaties to discuss the impartiality and binding force of international organizations and treaties, and to understand and analyze recent major international events, attempting to find ways to change the weaknesses of international organizations and treaties and lay a solid foundation for the peaceful development of all human beings in the future. International organizations and treaties play a critical role in guiding and mediating the peaceful development of humanity, and enhancing their impartiality and binding force would greatly benefit the peaceful development of humanity. It will be the cornerstone for further advancement of human civilization.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231202

    Will the US and China Go to War over Taiwan?

    The Taiwan issue has always been the most controversial topic in US-China relations. Moreover, the Taiwan Strait is often considered the most likely site of a military confrontation between the United States and China. The issue of Taiwan’s sovereignty has been the subject of questions and controversy regarding the ownership of Taiwan’s regime and sovereignty in the aftermath of the Second World War and the Communist Civil War. This paper analyses the political, economic, and cultural reasons for the establishment of diplomatic relations between the US and China. From the perspective of the construct of international relations, although the Taiwan issue is a dispute, the current analytical perspective suggests that whether China and the US will go to war in Taiwan will always exist, but to a greater extent it will be resolved through economic warfare, political approaches, and other means.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231204

    The Influence of Chinese Basic Educational Tracking on Its Vocational Education: A Comparative Study of Educational Tracking in China and Germany

    A majority of current comparative studies on vocational education in China and Germany emphasize China’s reference to the dual education system of Germany, but pay less attention to the impact of the two countries’ educational tracking (or streaming) on their own development of vocational education. This study adopts the literature research method to explore the impact of basic educational tracking on China’s vocational education system by comparing the differences between China and Germany in basic educational tracking. It is found that China’s basic education tracking has, to some extent, hindered the progress of vocational education due to its disadvantages such as insufficient preparation, late tracking time, and an unbalanced distribution ratio.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231205

    The Cognitive Theory of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Stress refers to stress in physics, that is, a kind of pressure, which has the meaning of stimulation and reaction in biology. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that occurs within a few days to six months after an individual is exposed to an unusually strong traumatic shock or trauma. Human events such as rape, abuse, violent assault, kidnapping, major traffic accidents and severe natural disasters such as strong earthquakes and tsunamis can cause mental disorders. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the few mental disorders with relatively clear etiology and unique clinical features, such as frequent flashbacks of traumatic events and hyper vigilance. This paper briefly introduces and reviews the cognitive theory of post-traumatic stress disorder. And it also outlines various famous academic experiments on these theories, elaborates on the breakthrough theories made by these academic experiments in these fields, and their contributions to psychiatry and its subsequent treatment. This paper finds that some theories about the cognitive theory of PTSD still have some limitations and need to be further perfected.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231206

    Research on the Legal Liquor Youth in the US

    Changing the legal drinking threshold in USA is an issue of contention in general that has been debated for decades but also one of the government’s concerns since it relates to the citizens’ health and livelihood issues such as traffic problems. The trends in related literature research in recent years keep in a relatively high position, lots of researchers are working on whether to lower the drinking age or not. This paper discusses whether the United States should lower the drinking age or not through the form of a literature review. Based on the analysis, it concludes that dropping the acceptable drinking age is essential. The main reason is about responsibility, potentially negative effects on the youth and others including sexual assault, binge drinking, development of the brain, and future study career. The research in this article can provide some reference for the US government to set the drinking age reasonably.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231207

    Controversial Issues in the Law of the Sea and Existing Resolution Strategies

    The establishment of a maritime community of shared future requires a commitment to legal governance of the oceans. However, the lack of codified maritime law and customary international legal norms presents significant challenges to this endeavor. In order to overcome these challenges, countries must adhere to legal frameworks in governing the oceans and foster global cooperation to establish a maritime legal environment that is based on the principles of equity, fairness, and sustainability. Furthermore, the uneven distribution of maritime rights and duties within the global marine community due to limitations in the scientific, technological, and The financial capacity of smaller States is a major obstacle to achieving the goal of establishing the rule of law in the oceans. This paper highlights the challenges involved in constructing a maritime community of shared future, and proposes various strategies to address these difficulties. These tactics encompass utilizing bilateral and regional pacts, enhancing the legal standing of customary global standards, reinforcing the United Nations structure, and collaborating with nations promoting the principle of equal sovereignty. By adopting these strategies and working together towards a common goal, The ideal establishment of the rule of law for the oceans and seas can be achieved, promoting a maritime community of shared future. Despite the potential benefits of establishing a global maritime legal framework, certain maritime hegemonic powers may pose obstacles to this objective, given their reluctance to embrace international maritime legal standards due to political considerations and the influence of Eurocentrism and Cold War ideologies. It is imperative that such powers be engaged in constructive dialogue, to overcome these obstacles and promote a shared vision for a sustainable, equitable, and cooperative global maritime community.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231211

    The Effect of Music on Sleep in Patients with Depression

    According to the latest statistics from the World Health Organization, an estimated 3.8% of the population experiences depression. Approximately 280 million people in the world suffer from depression. Among them, about 70% to 80% of patients with depression are accompanied by sleep disorders. Sleep disorders often cause symptoms such as emotional instability, memory loss, reduced immunity, and increased blood pressure. Music therapy is a non-invasive alternative therapy for relieving depressive symptoms. Unlike antidepressants and psychotherapy, it has no obvious side effects or adverse reactions, making it easier for patients to adhere to. It is also an inexpensive treatment option that requires minimal time and energy. As a result, music therapy has become more popular in the field of antidepressant therapy. Sleep disorders are one of the most common manifestations in patients with depression, and music has a certain impact on sleep, so it is of great significance to explore the impact of music on the sleep of patients with depression. This paper summarized the music therapy on people with depression and found that music therapy would improve their sleep quality and decrease their anxiety level and depression.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231212

    A Review of Research on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

    As a significant research object in the realm of organizational behavior, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has received extensive attention from researchers since it was proposed. Through a comprehensive analysis of a large number of English and Chinese literature, this article sorts out five important theoretical basis, including individual positive affect, social exchange theory, psychological contract, covenant relationships and equity theory. It also clarifies the concept and development of OCB and provide an overview of the current research in this field. Job satisfaction, perceived fairness, perceived supervisor support, and leadership styles have all been found to have significant effects on OCB. In academic circles, there are three main views about the association between OCB and organizational performance, showing that their relationship is still not clear enough. It turns out that positive effects are still the mainstream, while more and more scholars are studying on negative effects. Overall, this review article provides a comprehensive theoretical and practical reference for studying OCB and offers insights and guidance for the future development trend.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231214

    Research on Evidence Issues in Telecommunications Network Fraud Cases

    With the development of communication tools such as mobile phones and computers, telecommunications network fraud crimes in China have continued to be rampant, causing huge financial losses to the public. Due to the particularity of telecommunications network fraud, its evidence presents characteristics such as difficulty in the collection, differences in electronic certification, and a high degree of electronification. There are many problems in evidence collection, examination, and determination. Given the above issues, this paper proposes suggestions such as improving the custody chain regulations and using experience rules to assist the proof model based on the “Anti-Telecommunications Network Fraud Law of the People’s Republic of China”, to more effectively combat telecommunications network crimes.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231215

    The New Network Fraud of “Pig Butchering” from the Perspective of Criminal Law

    With the continuous development of the network, many new types of fraud also came into being, and “pig butchering” is a representative crime. This type of crime takes advantage of the weakness of human nature, that is, the lack of emotional life. In the face of this crime, the purpose of this article is to take an easy look at the new cyber crime of “pig butchering” from the perspective of criminal law. The purpose of this article is to show how to prevent and control this type of cybercrime and what countermeasures people should adopt in the face of these problems. It is argued that to solve the problem it requires the police to cooperate with the work of the judiciary while reducing errors in the investigation and collection of evidence. For another aspect, this new form of network fraud crime could be a challenge for the judical system. The difficulties in identifying accomplices in the crime is also worthy of attention.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231216

    Intrusion into Computer Information System: Criminal Law Rule Based on Different Judicial Recognition Perspectives of State Affairs

    Cybercrime refers to a new form of crime generated with the application and prevalence of computer technology. In China, there are increasingly more instances of unauthorized access to computer systems every year, which has severely affected network security and the property security of the people, and even national security. This paper delves deeper and more methodically into the problems surrounding the criminal act of unlawful access to computer information systems. The ambiguous definition and limited reach of the criminal object make China’s punishment for unauthorised access to computer systems less effective., the crossover of the criminal law system caused by the contradiction of legislative logic, as well as the insufficient prevention of too lenient penalties. Based on the above legislative deficiencies, it is imperative to improve the criminal law system, expand the protection scope of the first clause of Article 285 of the Criminal Law, Increase the number of cases that are investigated and prosecuted, explain computer information systems in the context of state affairs, expand the definition of “state affairs” computer information systems, and strictly regulate the amount of crime that is legal. Additionally, it is essential to establish an independent status for data crimes by adding provisions on data security protection concerning the three major computer information systems; increasing the intensity of punishment, raising the range of statutory penalties, and adding property penalties, thereby imposing a comprehensive regulation on illegal intrusion into computer information systems.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231217

    The Legal Path of Managing the Crime of Money Laundering in Digital Currency

    The characteristics of decentralized anonymity of digital currency reduce today’s financial crimes, especially the cost of money laundering crimes. Due to the relatively slow progress of Chinese research on digital currency, falling behind the current expansion trend of digital currency, there are many difficulties in governing digital currency crime. Therefore, the regulation of digital currency money laundering crime should start from the aspects of clarifying the legal attribute, introducing the standard judicial interpretation, and so on. The explosive growth of digital currency in 2017 has greatly reduced the cost of financial crimes of digital currency, seriously jeopardizing the economic order and people’s property security. Money laundering of digital currency is particularly rampant. Therefore, legal means should be adopted to regulate the application of digital currency in life.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231218

    Criminalisation of Traffic Hijacking and the Way Forward for Regulation

    Traffic hijacking is an act of unscrupulous elements using the network chain for profit. From the process of intruding into the system, obtaining information, controlling the computer, damaging the computer system, to helping the information network crime, Internet enterprises have incurred huge economic losses in the traffic hijacking crime. The characterisation of traffic hijacking in current judicial practice is controversial. This paper examines the dilemma of traffic hijacking behaviour identified in criminal law doctrine and judicial practice, analysing the definition of different infringements, the legal interests infringed and the harm caused; Determining the necessity of identifying and regulating acts from the perspective of behavioural science and social harm, considering the prerequisites for identification and identifying the justification of acts; By organising and classifying the offences and cases, distinguishing cyber crimes from traditional criminal law offences, and analysing the judgments, it can provide a consistent characterisation of traffic hijacking in terms of culpability and punishment; Lastly, the system of regulation of traffic hijacking will be constructed in the direction of protecting the legal interests of data, taking domestic and international experience as a guide and combining it with technological governance.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231219

    Judicial Determination of the Provision of VPN Behavior

    The issue of a judicial determination of the act of providing Virtual Private Network software is currently a hot topic of discussion in the judicial practice as well as theoretical urgent, and research has found that many VPN providers have engaged in many illegal acts by taking advantage of loopholes in legislation and justice. The offshore network activities have been categorized as one major national security concern by many countries and VPN providers are surely among those potential criminals. Since the use of offshore networks may involve infringement of national security as well as national ideology, China has implemented restrictions on access to specific foreign networks. However, the reason behind its formation is that there is not yet a uniform interpretation and determination standard for the application of the relevant issues. Therefore, this article will propose a set of unified standards as well as legislative improvement suggestions through the analysis of the crimes involved.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231220

    Research on Recognition Standards of Destructive Programs in Digital Crime

    Destructive programs in computer network systems have become the leaders in digital crime in contemporary society. However, the current laws for judicial recognition of destructive programs are not yet clear enough, and judicial personnel still need to combine their own experience to efficiently judge whether criminals use destructive programs to conduct internet Crime. This article will use the case study method, based on the case of Zhang Chaojie’s destruction of a computer information system, combined with document collection and empirical analysis, and analyzing the recognition dilemma, reasons and improvement measures of destructive programs with specific reference to 100 typical cases of destructive program crime in conjunction with legal interpretation, and the empirical results show that there are many types of destructive programs, so their concepts and identification procedures should be clearly defined.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231221

    Analysis of Post-90s Post-00s Employment Tendencies

    This is a study on the employment propensity of the post-90s and post-00s in China which is one of the key research topics in contemporary society. The researcher has identified the problem of low employment rates among young people, but there is a gap in research on the employment propensity of young people lacking knowledge. So the aim of this paper is to explore whether there are significant differences in the employment propensity of the two generations. The post-90s and post-00s are more willing to engage in some freelance work, have higher expectations of work and are more concerned with work-life balance. This difference may be related to the differences between the two generations in terms of upbringing, educational background and socio-economic status. The findings of this study have implications for education, businesses and policy makers, who should pay more attention to young people’s career development and improvement of their work environment, and provide them with more opportunities for self-employment and freelancing to meet their needs for work-life balance. At the same time, this will also help to promote socio-economic development and progress.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231228

    Research on the Anchoring Effect in the Judicial Field

    The anchoring effect is essentially a cognitive bias in which people tend to overly rely on the first piece of information they receive (the anchor) when making decisions, or are influenced by the first piece of information they received, which further leads to obvious deviations in subsequent judgments. This phenomenon is evident in multiple fields, including the legal field. This article will comprehensively introduce the mechanism of anchoring effect in the judicial field by collecting, analyzing, and integrating existing research results. It will also draw conclusions on the size of initial anchor values and how they can have a negative impact on judicial decision-making. Finally, potential solutions will be provided.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231229

    Comparative Analysis of the Results of Hong Kong Students and Shanghai Students in the 2018 PISA Tests

    Educational exchange and cooperation between mainland China and Hong Kong have long been a hot issue, and PISA gives the opportunity to test the learning of students from both regions against the same set of international assessment standards. The theme of this paper is the comparative analysis of the results of Hong Kong students and Shanghai students in the 2018 PISA tests. Through the literature review method, this paper first presents the data related to the performance of B-S-J-Z (China) and Hong Kong in PISA and then compares and analyses the differences between Shanghai and Hong Kong in terms of education policies and culture, education resources, and student’s well-being, and finds that there are similarities and difference between Shanghai and Hong Kong in these three areas. In terms of education policy and culture, Hong Kong schools have more autonomy to decide on school management and teaching content than Shanghai schools; in terms of education resources, both places suffer from regional disparities caused by uneven distribution of staff and materials; in terms of student well-being, both places suffer from excessive student pressure and long study hours, and the situation of bullying in schools in Hong Kong is more serious. The article concludes with suggestions on how Shanghai and Hong Kong can learn from each other, as well as providing ideas for optimising the education issues common to both places.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231231

    Exploring the Relationships Between Urban Form, Transportation Infrastructure, and Travel Behaviour: A Cross-City Comparison of Singapore, Beijing, Shanghai, Mumbai, Delhi, and Tokyo

    This paper combines traffic statistics of six typical Asian cities, including population density, GDP per capita, mode share, etc., and provides an in-depth analysis of the cities’ traffic situation. We summarized relationships between income, population density, transportation infrastructure, transportation policies in each city, and the mode of transportation in each area. We find that the population density in a town dramatically impacts the public transit systems, and there are significant relationships between the local travel policies and the mode share. In addition to the conclusions, we summarized the existing problems in this paper and made suggestions for future research in the field.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/17/20231232

    The Relationship Between Adverse Life Events and Subjective Well-being among High School Students in Samoa: The Mediation Effect of Hope, Grit, and Rumination

    The correlation between adverse life events and subjective well-being (SWB) has been verified by numerous studies. However, most of these studies are based on samples from developed countries, neglecting the situation in developing countries like Samoa. To address this gap, this study examined the relationship between adverse life events and SWB in Samoan high school students and investigated the mediating effects of hope, grit, and rumination. Self-reported questionnaires were completed by 179 high school students in Samoa. The results implied that adverse life events had a negative effect on SWB and that both hope and rumination played a mediating role in the relationship between adverse life events and SWB. Conversely, grit did not play a mediating role, as it had no significant effect on SWB despite being negatively correlated with adverse life events. These findings suggest that enhancing hope and grit while reducing rumination could help improve the level of SWB among Samoan high school students in the face of adversity.

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