Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the International Conference on Interdisciplinary Humanities and Communication Studies (ICIHCS 2022), Part 3

    Conference Date





    The study of humanities spans a variety of academic fields and is not restricted to any one area of research. Our conference aims to look into how interdisciplinarity, the humanities, and communication interact. What’s more, our conference devote to define the shifting connections between these concepts on the one hand, and extend current understanding of various studies on the other. We hope that interdisciplinary research with humanities and communication emphasis can all be traced back to the philosophical foundations of their research and therefore new ideas would be developed. 


    978-1-915371-33-1 (Print)

    978-1-915371-34-8 (Online)

    Published Date



    Muhammad Idrees, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

    Matilde Lafuente-Lechuga, University of Murcia


  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220478

    Immaterial Labour and Precarity in Cultural Industry: The Case of VTuber Live Streams

    Since the first virtual Youtuber appeared on YouTube in late 2016, the VTuber industry has become increasingly popular in recent years. While most research focuses on the reasons for VTubers’ popularity and the characteristics of virtual YouTubers, this article reveals the possible labour exploitation and the precarious working conditions faced by VTubers. Through the analysis of the immaterial labour produced by the Nakanohitos behind VTubers, this article argues that Vtubers are more likely to suffer from precarious working conditions. With an in-depth case study, it then illustrates the current social context for cultural workers like VTubers, and how precarity is manifested among them.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220118

    Production, Interaction, and Collapse: Celebrity Public Persona from the Perspective of Para-social Interaction Theory

    Based on the perspective of para-social interaction theory, this paper analyzes the logic of production, interaction, and collapse of the celebrity public persona. From the perspective of the establishment of celebrities' public persona, it pays attention to the integration of celebrity's own resources and advantages from the perspective of capital. From the perspective of the persona interactive, social media with emotion is used and communicated. From the perspective of the persona collapse, this paper probes into the reasons why the actual behaviors of the celebrities are divorced from the persona. The collapse of the celebrity persona will not only lead to the crisis of career development of celebrities, but also cause the crisis of fans' identity and social disorder.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220122

    Strengthening International Legal and Institutional Systems to Govern Transnational Challenges: Climate Change and Pandemic Disease

    This paper focuses on how international law can be improved to address increasingly complex international challenges, with climate change and pandemics as examples. A thorough analysis of the temperature rise, international migration and health problems caused by these international challenges will point out the gaps in the current system of international law. This paper will also make a detailed analysis of the agreements, regulations and constitutions that based on international law, point out the shortcomings and clearly put forward the improvement plan.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220123

    An Exploration of Motivations for Users’ Purchase Intention in Live-Streaming E-Commerce from a Perspective of Social Impact Theory

    Live-streaming (LS) e-commerce has become popular since it appeared in China in 2019. In light of this, this research explored the motivations for people’s purchase intention in LS under the theoretical framework of the Social Impact Theory (SIT). 160 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Additionally, relevant analysis on the platform Douyin was conducted. Results showed that streamers, other customers, and the LS platform contribute to affecting people’s purchase intention. Specifically speaking, the strength of streamers (how professional and popular they are) influences people’s trust; the number of other customers and their comments mediated people’s purchase intention; the immediacy of Douyin (how the platform makes the communication and purchase easier) also has an impact on the purchase intention

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220125

    Post-Truth Era: Gender-Related Reversal Events —Taking the Case of “Ying Liang and Guanjun Luo” as an Example

    Given the high transmission efficiency and the vast loads of users on social media platforms, Weibo in China is used by victims to reveal immoral or illegal behaviors to the public. In the post-truth era, an individual's subjectivity on the Internet outweighs objective truths in exerting significant impact. Taking the event of 'Ying Liang and Guanjun Luo' as an example, this study analyzes how digital culture constructed and reinforced public opinion direction by citing statistics on https://ef.zhiweidata.com and several representative comments on Weibo. It can be concluded that the priming effect influences how people evaluate this case and the development of public opinions. Furthermore, this reversal event eventually caused a decline in public trust among netizens, created more obstacles for other female victims who genuinely needed help, and induced a discredit towards feminists radically participating in supporting the female victim.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220128

    Scientific Reasonings Regarding the Multiverse and Its Implications

    The multiverse has been a heated topic under discussion as it belongs to a scientific concept, yet still has strong philosophical implications as direct evidence can hardly be gathered. This research analyzes the likelihood of the multiverse using classical scientific reasoning models, including falsification and the paradox of grue. The paper also discusses the impact of the multiverse on our free will, covering the notions of the time sequence, self, and the logic behind scientific developments. The paper concludes that the multiverse is so far rendered pseudoscience, and the situation may only change when science further develops. Although the multiverse is a theory that strongly challenges the notion of free will, the paper concludes that we should believe we possess free will to prevent the culture war and preserve all human emotions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220129

    How Does a Twitter Hashtag Hype a COVID-19 Conspiracy Theory?

    We analyzed the trend of high frequency words under a Twitter hashtag #5G: Coronavirus as well as the sentiments behind based on the collected 3,136 tweets which filled the gap in studies concerning how conspiracy spread. Figuring out the mechanism, we found the contexts driven by the conspiracy appear to be negative as a whole, and new topics overflow into the unsolved tangle, by which we propose two succinct solutions to tackle the issue: explain the obscure events ASAP and avoid direct engagement with conspiracy theory discourse

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220136

    New Media and Female Consumption——Taking the Xiaohongshu Platform as an Example

    Nowadays, consumption has become an indispensable part of people's lives, and people enjoy the satisfaction brought by consumption. The rapid development of e-commerce and express delivery industries has boosted consumption. And women as the main consumer group for the Internet economy have brought a new trend. With the increase in women's income and the improvement of social status, women have gradually become the main body of virtual consumption that can not be ignored. In response to this situation, some new media platforms began to cater to the needs of female consumers, resulting in a gender imbalance. Xiaohongshu is popular among female users through "note-sharing" and e-commerce. Using the Xiaohongshu platform as a case to analyze women's consumption behavior in new media. This paper mainly studies the characteristics of female consumption behavior in the era of rapid development of new media. By means of literature analysis and case analysis, this paper studies female consumer groups. Through the research, it is found that there is an imbalance in the ratio of gender users, and female users rely too much on the platform Xiaohongshu

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220149

    How Should the United Nations Security Council Respond to Changing Balance of Power?

    Together with the United Nations’ achievements comes constant criticism. The Security Council, as one of the core organs of the UN, has been a center of contention. The lack of practical responses to the Ukraine crisis since 2014 invokes another round of skepticism about the Council’s functionality and demand for reform. This paper does not consider the current dilemma exceptional. In contrast, this is merely another example that illustrates the Council’s increasing incapability when encountering the changing balance of power. Therefore, this paper claims the Council needs a robust reform to re-adapt to the grand trend. The first part briefly introduces the Council’s history to illustrate some possible fundamental issues in the Council. The second part analyzes the Council’s contemporary dilemmas when encountering crises involving great powers, such as Ukraine. Finally, the paper evaluates the existing plans for reform and proposes a new direction for consideration. Even though the Council has been suffering from weakness recently, it is unlikely that the world can completely abandon it soon before finding a more appropriate replacement. Therefore, this paper’s work is an initiating framework for future reform. But more research and discussion are necessary for a more elaborate scheme for practice.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220153

    The Feasibility of Incorporation of Labor Standards in the WTO

    With vigorous international trade development, cheap labor cost has become a concrete factor in gaining a competitive advantage between states. However, in reality, it has gradually caused labor protection standards to deviate from the track of human rights protection and create great difficulties in the enforcement mechanism. Through a discussion of cheap labor costs and its resulting low labor standards, this paper argues that the WTO should incorporate labor standards to counter the labor costs’ “race to the bottom” in developing countries

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220155

    A Tale of Two Trends: The Characteristics of Linguistic Sexism in the Era of Social Media and Its Effects on Gender Equity

    This paper introduced the manifestations and formation of traditional linguistic sexism in the English world, elaborated on the new characteristics of linguistic sexism in the era of social media, and analyzed the effects of social media on linguistic sexism and gender equity. In general, social media makes gender equality present two trends. On the new characteristics, social media has reshaped linguistic sexism deeply in two ways: one is the anonymity of social media that has changed the traditional communication mechanism and incited hostile linguistic sexism; the other is social media’s openness and interactivity that has increased the risk of linguistic sexism as well as the quarrel over gender issues. On the prospect of gender equity in the era of social media, this paper concluded two effects: one is the promotion of gender equity awareness, and the other is the risk of group polarization of attitudes towards gender issues

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220165

    The Social Media Influence on Youth Spending

    In the 21st century, social media has become a tool for people to communicate and the most frequently used software. In China, the research focuses on whether social media has an impact on youth spending. This study used questionnaires and random interviews to determine whether social media has an impact on teenagers' spending. A total of 103 questionnaires were collected and 8 teenagers out of 103 teenagers (high school students) were selected as interviewees. The study found that teenagers were influenced by the spread of social media, had wrong ideas about money and led to an increase in spending. The study hopes that more attention will be paid to the development of money and spending concepts among teenagers

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220168

    Analyse the Protection of Human Rights in Informatization Investigation in China

    Criminal proceedings are required to be conducted in accordance with the law. The law stipulates that the protection of human rights is one of the basic principles of criminal proceedings. At the same time, the exclusion rules of illegal evidence established after the revision of the criminal procedure law in 2012 pay more attention to the protection of human rights. The concept of information-based investigation can be traced back to the construction of "national public security information project - Golden Shield Project" proposed by the State Council in 1998. Up to now, more than 20 years of changes in the times and the development of investigation means have made information-based investigation an indispensable part of the investigation organ in discovering crime, preventing crime and solving cases. Although the concept of information-based investigation has been put forward for more than 20 years, at present, there is no specific law to authorize the investigation organ to exercise, and the laws and regulations for its implementation and supervision still need to be improved. Especially when some investigation behaviors in information-based investigation will infringe on citizens' personal and privacy rights, the protection of human rights in information-based investigation has to attract the high attention of legal circles and interdisciplinary scholars. This paper will focus on the analysis and suggestions on the regulation of information-based investigation from the perspective of human rights protection in criminal procedure.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220173

    Influence of Social Media on the Application of Chinese Traditional Cultural Elements in the Fashion Industry

    The New Chinese Style is a popular outfit style in China, but it is still undergoing development. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between social media and New Chinese Style using a case study approach. According to the results, social media plays an essential role in the development of popular style and communication. The popularity of New Chinese Style on social media is inextricably linked to sales of New Chinese Style garments online shopping, and the comments of users also influence the design direction of New Chinese Style garments. The authenticity of information uploaded to social media should be strictly controlled. In addition, fashion designers should learn what is the true essence of Chinese traditional culture before designing clothes.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220179

    Reforms Within the Current WTO System to Ensure Developing Nation Interests: Labor Standards, Intellectual Property, and Dispute Settlement

    The modern international trade framework aims for trade liberalization, that achieving worldwide free trade would help people achieve higher living standards. However, the current WTO system still requires modifications to ensure the rights and benefits of developing countries regarding worker protection, intellectual property protection, and dispute settlement. This paper focuses on analyzing the current labor market, intellectual property policies, and judicialization within international dispute settlement procedures, points out the flaws in each of them and provides a solution for possible enhancement to ensure developing country rights.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220188

    Reformation of Dispute Settlement Mechanisms for International Trade Organizations: Ensuring Developing Country Interests

    Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) are frequently advantageous for developing countries and can help them prepare for future trade opportunities provided by the World Trade Organization (WTO). Developing countries face a dilemma when disputes occur within an RTA; the WTO Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) tends to be too costly and inaccessible, while RTA dispute settlement mechanisms (DSM) tend to be underdeveloped and immature. In order to minimize the cost of dispute resolution and better safeguard the interests of developing nations and regional trade agreements, which are frequently more beneficial to developing countries, this paper describes why and how the WTO should change its dispute settlement procedures. It also argues that these systems should be established to make the WTO's dispute resolution mechanisms more effective.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220200

    Analysis of Changes in Fashion Representation in the Perspective of Media Evolution

    With the increasing prevalence of social media, fashion has changed with it. Social media has shifted the meaning of fashion from the mass media era to the social media era. In order to build customer loyalty through effective communication with consumers, luxury brands have turned to social media for promotional strategies. Luxury fashion brands have evaluated social media marketing techniques such as Twitter, Weibo and Instagram as an effective tool to take their business to the next level. However, the recent entry of many fashion brands into the luxury market and the ensuing fierce competition has brought unexpected changes to the market. We discuss how fashion performs differently in traditional media and social media, how the type of customer has changed, and how social media allows fashion brands to reach a wider audience.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220206

    Deficiencies of the Nationally Determined Contributions: Risk of Exacerbating Climate Change

    This paper examines the effectiveness of NDCs in the Paris Agreement for alleviating climate change and inequality. Incorporating evidence from reviews and journals, this study argues that NDCs effectively solve part of the pre-existing inequality, yet the deficiencies of this mechanism have to be improved to achieve the maximization of its function. More specifically, by evaluating the changes brought by NDCs including independent emission reduction, the improved role of developed country parties, and the re-positioned role of developing country parties, the innovations of NDCs mechanism to successfully solve the pre-existing problems in the Kyoto Protocol are clearly recognized and demonstrated. Yet by analyzing the existing deficiencies of NDCs including weak legal binding causing overall low ambition, potential vicious cycle formed, insufficient compliance motivation, and the problem of free riders causing the tragedy of Race to the Bottom, NDCs are shown to be insufficient to effectively address climate change and respond to inequality. Finally, it is worth considering strengthening the participation of non-state actors and enhancing the link between climate change and trade as possible methods to improve the deficiencies of NDCs, and other possible ways of improvement are put forward.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-05-17 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/4/20220209

    The Barriers that Low-skilled Workers Might Face to Canada Lifelong Learning Plan Participation

    The rapid development of society under today's Canadian neoliberal control. From a cultural to an economic standpoint, human labor has become a critical component in the operation of this nation. However, Canada is facing a serious aging population problem that will make it impossible to meet society's labor resource needs. The federal government issued a policy called the Lifelong Learning Plan (LLP) in 1999 to support citizens' lifelong learning and training, which may extend their working period after they retire. Nonetheless, given the lower wealth accumulation and working skills of low-skilled employees, there may be some barriers to access LLP after retirement and returning to the workplace. This paper investigates the barriers that low-skilled workers may face in accessing LLP, finishing their post-secondary education, and returning to the workplace in Canada using a qualitative method of analyzing official government policies and academic literacy. The paper discovers that there are several limitations that low-skilled employees may face in order to participate successfully and optimally, including: low wealth accumulation to support the high tuition fee; social conflict social roles of being full-time students in LLP and full-time employees from workplace; regular long training period from LLP; and other chosen investment options that are more important than LLP from Registered Retirement Saving Plans (RRSPs)

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