Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the International Conference on Global Politics and Socio-Humanities

    Conference Date







    978-1-83558-125-4 (Print)

    978-1-83558-126-1 (Online)

    Published Date



    Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia

    Enrique Mallen, Sam Houston State University


  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230342

    Exploring the Adverse Effects and Prevention Methods of Electronic Games on the Physical and Mental Development of Adolescents in Contemporary Society

    The electronic game industry has developed rapidly in the past decade. From Contra and Super Mario to League of Legends and Glory of Kings, players’ enthusiasm for games has been enduring. Among them, game consoles have brought arcade halls to people’s homes. With the development of the times, iPhones make games’ within reach with the level of realism in image technology has significantly improved. With the popularity of games, a problem has emerged which is game addiction. With the expansion of the base of game players, the problem of game addiction has become a social problem that cannot be ignored. Many studies have examined the risk effects of game addiction, including academic performance, physiological development, social development, and the formation of negative emotions such as package personality, anxiety, depression, and suicidal tendencies. This study has integrated these variables to explore the role of multiple influencing factors in developing game addiction and their potential prevention methods.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230348

    The Secrets of Continuous Governance by the People's Action Party in Singapore: A Focus on Parliamentary System Design

    Since Singapore's independence in 1965, the People's Action Party (PAP) has consistently maintained its position as the ruling party, securing an overwhelming majority of seats in the parliament. This paper seeks to explore the historical continuity and refinement process of the PAP's parliamentary system within the context of Singapore's parliamentary structure and discuss the impacts of these designs on the party's governance. By analyzing the PAP's contributions to the composition of the parliament and the design of the electoral system, this study reveals that the parliamentary system is a crucial component enabling the PAP's sustained rule. Evidently, within Singapore's parliamentary framework, the PAP has implemented numerous designs. On one hand, it leverages the procedural legitimacy inherent in the system to confer legitimacy upon its governance. On the other hand, it capitalizes on efficient and frequent design modifications to tailor the system to its advantage, ensuring the continuity of its rule.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230349

    Research on the Impact of Parental Movie Choices on Children in China

    In the context of growing global awareness regarding the influence of media content on young audiences, this paper focuses on the significant subject of film rating systems. Specifically, it explores the intricate landscape of these systems, their implementation across various countries, and the unique absence of such a system in China. Through an extensive analysis of existing rating systems, including those in the United States, the UK, and India, the study illuminates their influence on global cinema and cultural perceptions. Focusing on China, the paper employs a detailed survey of parents’ experiences and opinions regarding movie selection for children in the absence of a formal rating system. Findings reveal that a majority of parents acknowledge that movies have an impact on children. Notably, parents express a strong desire for the implementation of a movie rating system in China to guide their choices and prevent the exposure of their children to adult or violent content. However, the study also uncovers potential challenges and complexities in designing a system that balances protection, choice, and cultural relevance. The paper concludes by advocating for a well-considered film rating system in China that aligns with international norms yet is sensitive to local values, aiming to foster a responsible and diverse cinematic culture.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230350

    Revisiting Peter Singer’ s International Aid Theory: Interpretation and Challenges

    Utilitarianism is an important analysis path of international aid, Peter Singer’s international aid theory. It is one of the representative theories. The “aid obligation” of rich countries to poor countries is the core of Singer’s international aid theory. Peter Singer demonstrated the obligation of rich countries and their peoples to assist the poor abroad through the “drowning child” thinking experiment, and his theory of international aid was born. He believes that on the basis that people have an obligation to rescue children who have fallen into the water, rich countries and their people also have an obligation to help those who are far away in poverty. There are many criticisms of Singer’s moral argument, and his aid theory still faces some serious challenges: aid theory presupposes an unreasonable view of responsibility, the standard of “similar moral importance” imposes harsh requirements on people, and also faces some utilitarian criticism.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230351

    Issues of Consular Protection in China: Take the Stranded Students in Ethiopia Event as an Example

    In today’s complex and volatile international situation, the world is experiencing political multi-polarization, overall peace and local turbulence in the world, major country relations are adjusting, and the role of the United Nations is gradually increasing. At the right time, China has put forward the Belt and Road Initiative in accordance with the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. With the rapid development and change of the international situation and the continuous innovation and development of world information technology, some new phenomena and problems have gradually emerged in the scope of China’s consular protection work. It is necessary to sort out and analyze solutions. In this paper, based on the related research results, combined with author’s own deep thinking and practical experience, through the stranded students in Ethiopia event study the overseas interests protection problem.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230355

    Analysis of the Outbreak of the Cold War and Its Impact on Armed Conflict

    The Cold War has always been a historical stage that has attracted much attention. This historical stage has profoundly affected today’s international situation and people’s perception of great power competition. The Cold War lasted for nearly forty-four years. During this nearly half a century, the US and the Soviet Union used almost all means of confrontation except direct armed conflict to achieve the effect of suppressing each other. By analyzing past historical events and cases for example, this paper mainly discusses the causes of the Cold War and how it prevent armed conflict from becoming two topics of widespread concern, and it concludes that the outbreak of the Cold War was related to the anarchy among the great powers, and also related to the differences in economic systems between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. The Cold War prevented nuclear war but intensified conventional war to some extent. This paper aims to tell people that the Cold War is not an ideal state of the international community, all countries should learn lessons from the Cold War to avoid the recurrence of this unhealthy international pattern.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230358

    Approaching the European Union Directive on Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Through the Lens of the Principle of Good Faith

    The article aims to delve into the nuanced interpretation of the principle of good faith within the domain of unfair terms prevalent in consumer contracts. This principle has proven pivotal in appraising the fairness of terms, serving as a benchmark. Its multifaceted application across legal domains necessitates a precise explication of its contextual significance. Emphasizing the imperative to delineate the exact connotation of the good faith principle in the judicial realm of consumer safeguarding, the article subsequently elucidates this proposition through a meticulous analysis of the Directive and its corresponding legal cases. However, the initial analysis underscores the Directive’s somewhat ambiguous delineation of the good faith principle. This prompts an inquiry into whether such ambiguity hampers the comprehensive evolution of this principle within the broader context of EU private law. Consequently, the subsequent discourse endeavors to rationalize this aspect within a redefined comprehension of the jurisprudential underpinning of the Directive.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230361

    Research on Bilingual Acquisition Based on Ambiguity Sentences

    Language ambiguity is one of the difficulties in learning a language. Chinese is one of the most difficult languages in the world to learn because of its various ambiguities. This paper mainly explores the phenomenon of ambiguity in Chinese, and summarizes the research status of ambiguity among domestic and foreign scholars. The phenomenon of ambiguity is analyzed by reading literature and searching example sentences in the corpus. First of all, through reading the literature to understand the definition and classification of ambiguity. Then the impact of ambiguity on bilingual learners from the phonetic, lexical and grammatical aspects is analyzed. Among them, the grammatical aspect is further divided into the ambiguity of the syntactic plane, the ambiguity of the semantic plane and the ambiguity of the pragmatic aspect; finally, corresponding suggestions for teaching Chinese as a foreign language are put forward from the aspects of phonetics, vocabulary and grammar. For teachers, it is not only necessary to help students establish a correct attitude to deal with ambiguity, but also to avoid strange phenomena through some teaching methods such as pinyin or Chinese characters. And to help students develop good study habits, second language learners should really understand the meaning of the sentences, not just memorize each sentence mechanically. At the same time, teachers can create various contexts to help bilingual learners understand sentences and eliminate ambiguity.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230360

    Cautious or Fearless: A Comparative Analysis of the Policies of the Nixon and Trump Administrations Regarding the Inclusion of the South China Sea Region in the Scope of the Mutual Defense Treaty Between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America

    Since the Philippines began to have disputes regarding the South China Sea’s territorial sovereignty with China in the end of 1960s, it has engaged in a long-term game with its greater ally of whether the Mutual Defense Treaty between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America applies to the region. The Nixon administration was regarded as the basic positioning period of the US policy on the US-Philippines alliance during the Cold War, holding a vague attitude. However, during the Trump era, Washington clearly offered the Philippines security guarantees for this region, indicating a significant policy-making shift. This article selects the Nixon and Trump administrations as cases, utilizing the theoretical framework of the “entrapment” dilemma in alliance management theory which aims to investigate into the reasons why the two administrations held extremely different attitudes towards whether to include the South China Sea region in the scope of the MDT and analyze the cost-benefit considerations of Washington in managing the Asia-Pacific military alliance. The conclusion is that in the Nixon era, the US tended to avoid being “entrapped” because it was not worth the deterioration in relations with China and other informal allied countries only to maintain its alliance with the Philippines. However, during the Trump administration, to enhance its military presence in this region, maintain and strengthen a series of Asia-pacific military alliances, the US is willing to bear the risk of “entrapment”.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230369

    A Community of Shared Future for Mankind and the Logic of China’s Global Governance in the Post-COVID-19 Era

    The concept of a community with a shared future has emerged as a guiding principle in global governance, emphasizing humanity’s interconnectedness and shared interests. In the post-pandemic era, global governance faces unprecedented challenges and changes, impacting health security, economic recovery, and social stability. Amidst these changes, China’s approach to international management has evolved, presenting innovative solutions and injecting new dynamics into the global landscape. This paper explores the relationship between a community with a shared future and China’s global governance logic in the post-pandemic era. It examines the challenges of global governance in this new context and delves into China’s specific practices within the framework of a community with a shared future. The study reviews China’s efforts in global health governance, economic cooperation, development assistance, climate change, and sustainable development. Through qualitative and quantitative research methods, this study analyzes China’s role in shaping the global landscape and the impact of a community with a shared future on international relations. The research draws from primary data collected through official documents, international agreements, and statements from relevant stakeholders. The findings reveal that China’s emphasis on a community with a shared future has fostered increased cooperation and collaboration in various global governance areas. China’s contributions to global health initiatives, economic partnerships, and sustainable development demonstrate its commitment to multilateralism and inclusive approaches to addressing global challenges.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230370

    Mechanisms and Effects of Interpersonal Pressure

    This paper provides an overview of how interpersonal stress is evolving into a major issue in contemporary culture. The complicated expectations and standards that frequently exist in interpersonal interactions as well as the quick evolution of society both contribute to interpersonal stress, which people frequently encounter when forming relationships and talking with others. The psychological and physiological aspects of interpersonal stress have been thoroughly investigated in well-established studies, and it has been discovered that they have an effect on the activation of particular brain regions. Currently, interpersonal circumstances such as strong friendships, family ties, peer interactions, and extremely violent maltreatment are the focus of international research. Additionally, interpersonal stress has a substantial impact on how well people retain their connections and function at work. A comprehensive comprehension of the origins, mechanisms, and consequences of interpersonal stress is essential for implementing effective interventions and providing support to individuals and organizations. As a result, this study will employ a literature review and systematic analysis to describe important research advancements, summarize and evaluate the literature in the research area, summarize recent research findings on interpersonal stress, and pinpoint gaps in the body of existing knowledge. Research has shown that interpersonal stress is becoming an increasingly important concern in modern society.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230378

    The Effects of Academic Anxiety on College Students’ Learning of Spoken English

    This paper examines the effects of academic anxiety on college students’ learning of spoken English. Academic anxiety can hinder students’ fluency, pronunciation accuracy, self-expression, and overall confidence in oral communication. The study identifies various factors that contribute to academic anxiety, including personal, external, socio-cultural, and psychological factors. It explores the negative consequences of academic anxiety on students’ spoken English learning outcomes. Coping mechanisms and strategies, such as creating a supportive learning environment, teaching stress management techniques, and promoting self-reflection and self-assessment, are proposed to address academic anxiety. The paper emphasizes the practical implications for educators, institutions, and policymakers, including teacher training, curriculum design, peer interaction, counseling services, and assessment practices. Implementing these recommendations can create a supportive and empowering learning environment, mitigating the impact of academic anxiety. The study concludes by highlighting the importance of recognizing and addressing academic anxiety to enhance college students’ spoken English skills and prepare them for success in a globalized world.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230379

    Promoting Effective Second Language Acquisition: Exploring the Benefits and Practical Implementation of Student-centered Learning in China

    This paper explores how student-centered learning can benefit second language acquisition (SLA) in China. By drawing on the expertise of scholars in the field, the study explores how student autonomy, motivation, collaboration, and communication opportunities can positively influence general language learning outcomes. Additionally, this paper emphasizes the significance of adopting student-centered approaches to enhance language teaching in second language acquisition (SLA) specifically in the context of China’s unique educational environment. By benefiting from SLA and language education scholars, practical suggestions for student-centered learning in Chinese language classrooms are also provided. Furthermore, the writer believes that by adopting a student-centered approach, language teachers in China can intentionally create an environment that helps students acquire language more effectively and improve their overall language proficiency. Student-centered approach not only contributes to better language skills but also advance a more engaging and interactive learning environment, students can develop not only enhanced language skills but also acquire valuable life skills through active participation in class.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230380

    The Effect of Stratified Teaching on Students’ Self-efficacy

    As an educational principle, stratified teaching aims to effectively improve teachers’ focus in the classroom, alleviate their stress, and enhance students’ learning at their respective levels. To date, this pedagogical principle, although widely used in schooling, has had an impact on the development of students’ self-efficacy due to the unfair differentiation it produces. Self-efficacy, as an important factor affecting self-directed learning as well as long-term learning, is a competence that students need to develop in the 21st century. This study explores the impact of stratified teaching on students’ self-efficacy by analyzing existing literature and data. Differentiation induced by stratified teaching affects students’ self-confidence, which, in turn, impacts their motivation to learn and has a negative effect on their self-efficacy. Besides, since teachers’ salaries are linked to students’ performance, the hidden salary disparities caused by stratified teaching also impact teachers’ expectations of students. This, in turn, reduces their focus and support for students, ultimately affecting students’ development of self-efficacy.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230387

    Analysis on the Reasons for the Failure of Revolutions: A Comparison Between the American Revolutionary War and the American Civil War

    The American Revolutionary War aimed for political equality, resulting in the independence of the United States and the retention of the social order. The law established after the movement preserved slavery without making a direct claim. In contrast, the target of the American Civil War was to abolish slavery. It gained legal success but failed to change American society. Treating citizens differently according to their skin colour was banned, however, racial segregation remained in the country. In this paper, the causes of the failure of the two revolutions mentioned above are discussed, focusing on their influences on laws and communities. The principles, aims, and results of the events are compared and contrasted, so as to discover the reasons why revolutions are not able to shape society according to their purposes. Conclusions can be drawn that revolutions do not succeed mainly due to two reasons: either because the laws that line up with the principles of the revolutions are not established as the revolutions themselves do not aim for the principles or because the principles are not carried out in society even if related laws are established, for the domestic force against them is too strong.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230388

    The Primacy of National Policies in Navigating the Local-Global Nexus: A Case Study of the Plastic Crisis

    Against the backdrop of the escalating plastic crisis, exacerbated by human activities and posing a significant public concern, this study seeks to evaluate the role of various policy-making levels in environmental intervention. The core subject of investigation is the integral function of national lawmakers in spearheading effective environmental policy strategies while contextualizing the coordination of local and international policymakers. Using practical policy examples as primary tools for analysis, the study delves into the dynamics between the three tiers of policy-making and gleans evidence underlining the centrality of national players. Results indicate that while local and international policies offer solutions, they are often impeded by inherent policy limitations. National policies, powered by vast resources and political clout, emerge as pivotal, capable of overhauling plastic production, consumption, and disposal mechanisms. The research concludes that to holistically address the plastic crisis spawned by market failures, a blend of governmental intervention, primarily driven by national policymakers, and complemented by local and international cooperation, is imperative. Additionally, the future necessitates not only a reduction in plastic use but also the pursuit of viable plastic alternatives to combat pollution comprehensively.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230394

    Relationship Between Judicial Decisions and the Pursuit of Peace and Justice in International Law

    The issue of potential tensions between justice and peace has arisen in the context of the growth of institutions for international justice. It is easy to find details from Columbia, Uganda, South Africa, and so forth. It is an old controversial debate, in fact, which focuses on whether perpetrators should be given punishment or amnesty in the aftermath of war and how society emerging from political violence successfully and peacefully achieves post-conflict reconstruction. In fact, the international community has offered various strategies as a transitional mechanism that reflected peace and justice in different ways. However, there are still lots of problems. This article introduces and analyzes these problems behind them. This paper involved some reviews from the victims and dozens of records and data to reflect the situation. This paper aims to recognize the value of peace and justice by comparing three examples.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230399

    An Analysis of the Content of Article 12 of the Rome Statute and the Relationship Between Article 12 and Article 98

    This article explores the dilemma for the International Criminal Court of its jurisdiction and cooperation with non-parties, combining normative and empirical analyses. The complementary jurisdiction under Article 12 of the Rome Statute plays a “carrot and stick” role, and the voluntary declaration mechanism of non-parties corresponds with the international law principles, while the vague wording of the text contributes to a certain degree of interpretation, suggesting the Court to adopt a flexible and cautious approach.From the provisional consensual nature between Article 12 and Article 98, the receiving state should be obliged to collaborate with the ICC under international customary law, but in practice, third parties often seek exemptions from the Security Council and conclude bilateral agreements to substantively limit the ICC’s jurisdictional cooperation in enforcement under Article 98. Behind the dilemma of jurisdiction and enforcement is the structural contradiction between the demand for “ending impunity” under the humanistic perspective and the respect for state sovereignty under the principle of complementarity. States shall define legal circumvention, while the ICC should improve the initiation mechanism rather than arbitrarily expanding jurisdictional interpretations.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230405

    Whether the “China Threat Theory” Represents China’s International Role ——Analysis Based on the Transformation of Chinese Foreign Policy

    In recent years, China has actively adjusted its foreign policy, integrated into the international order with a more open attitude, and strived to play China’s role in the region and the world and shoulder “China’s responsibilities.” However, the United States and some of China’s neighbors view China’s rise with suspicion and fear, and vigorously promote the “China threat theory.” Based on this background, this paper puts forward the research topic of whether the “China threat theory” represents China’s international role from the perspective of the transformation of China’s foreign policy. As a rising power, it is of great significance in the field of international relations to understand whether the purpose of China’s rise poses a threat to other countries and the current international order. This paper uses the qualitative analysis method to analyze and study the South China Sea dispute and the Diaoyu Island issue as cases, and draws the conclusion that the “China threat theory” is not China’s current international role.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-11-20 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/23/20230408

    A Case Study on the “Clean Air Plan for Wales”

    The main idea of this paper is to make a comprehensive evaluation of the “Clean Air Plan for Wales”, a newly introduced air pollution policy in recent years, and give countermeasures. This article starts from four different themes which are People, Environment, Properity, and Place and studies different measures and solutions under each topic. The “People” is to raise awareness of air pollution among local residents and develop different policies to better monitor and control air pollution and emissions. The “Environment” is to formulate some policies to overcome the negative influences that bring by air pollution on biodiversity and ecosystems and create a more resilience and ecological natural environment. The “Properity” is primiraly about the regulating businesses and industries to reduce carbon and other pollutant emission. The last theme, “Place” is about some acts, programme and policies that will reduce air pollution generated by traffic and transportation on public places. Finally, the paper analyses that the plan is successful on the whole. However, due to the impact of the budget, COVID-19, and policies, some plans have been delayed, but the article gives suggestions on how to plan and study air pollution more effectively in the future. The whole article makes it easier and intuitive for people to understand the measures in the “Clean Air Plan for Wales” and what the government has done for air pollution. In addition, the suggestions put forward in the article can also provide some reference and reflection value for policy makers.

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