Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Educational Innovation and Philosophical Inquiries

    Conference Date







    978-1-83558-055-4 (Print)

    978-1-83558-056-1 (Online)

    Published Date



    Enrique Mallen, Sam Houston State University

    Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia


  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231015

    Metacognition and Mentalization in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Social cognition is necessary to comprehend and interpret the behavioural intentions of oneself and others in social contexts. Despite an increasing understanding of social cognition deficits in mental illness, the relationship between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and high-order social cognition deficits (i.e., mentalization and metacognition) remains under-investigated. This paper aims to provide a holistic review of the existing empirical evidence on mentalization and metacognition in patients with MDD and suggest areas in need of further research. While a close relationship between MDD and metacognition has been consistently reported, some disagreement was raised regarding the association between mentalization capacity and MDD. Besides, the direction of the association between MDD, mentalization and metacognition was also underlined by studies examining the outcomes of high-order social cognition therapies. Mentalization and metacognition were both found to be predictors or at least moderators, of MDD diagnosis and symptom severity. Future evidence from developmental and neuroimaging studies may provide valuable insights into the field of study by uncovering the varying degrees of the impact caused by social cognition deficits and their associated neural mechanisms.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231016

    Analysis of the School Choice under China’s Compulsory Education Based on Educational Equity

    The root cause of the recent surge in school choice in China’s compulsory education stage is the imbalance of educational resources. School choice is an objective expression of people’s demand for better schools and education for their children after the popularization of compulsory education. However, due to the limited educational resources in China, various methods have been adopted to achieve the goal. This paper explores the issue of educational equity from the perspective of school choice in compulsory education by starting from the surge in school choice and its current situation, using qualitative research to analyse the relationship between the advantages and disadvantages of school choice and educational equity, and finally exploring solutions to the problem of the surge in school choice, so as to provide some ideas for the development of educational equity. Conclusions can be drawn that, to solve the problem of school choice, it is necessary for multiple parties to work together in order to address both the symptoms and the root causes.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231019

    Legal Remedies for Government Intervention in Cross-border M&A: A Comparative Research Between China and the United States

    The role of the government in cross-border M&A, as well as the intervention means and authority it adopts, have always been the focus of controversy in the practical and theoretical circles. Based on the perspective of comparative research between China and the United States, this paper, and then first analyzes the national security review systems of different countries analyzes the remedies when the government’s intervention in cross-border mergers and acquisitions causes damage to private enterprises. At the same time, this paper will also analyze the existing system of government intervention in cross-border mergers and acquisitions of different countries and discuss the development trend of state intervention system in the new era based on the analysis of the TikTok case. Finally, this paper will ultimately propose suggestions for improving China’s existing national security review system and further propose suggestions for improving the existing relief system based on the analysis of existing remedies. Suggestions for improving China’s national security review system mainly include the formation of laws with a higher level of effectiveness, the improvement of supervision mechanisms, and the provision of remedial rights for private enterprises. The suggestions on the improvement of the remedy system mainly focus on the improvement of the host country, mainly including the power of judicial review granted to domestic judicial institutions and the improvement of the system of prior consultation agreements.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231023

    Analysis of the Impact of Single-Sex Education on Female Mathematics Anxiety

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) is the most common phenomenon in students’ study lives, and gender differences exist. Studying MA can play a supporting role in mathematics courses, including the difficulty of test questions and course design.The main objective of this paper has attempted to analyze the impact of single-sex education on female Mathematics Anxiety (MA), particularly research on the relationship between gender stereotypes and female MA. The literature reviews focusing on the causes of MA, the mechanism of MA affecting gender differences, MA levels and mathematics education under single-sex education, as well as the relationship between gender stereotypes and MA can show single-sex education plays a positive role in reducing female MA to a certain extent. This research is expected to improve public education and reduce sexism and gender stereotypes based on understanding the beneficial effects of single-sex education on women.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231027

    Influence of Divorced Family Environment on Children’s Emotional Development

    The purpose of this article is to explore children’s positive and negative emotions in divorced families and which parents had a greater impact on (positive or negative) children’s emotional development after divorce, like anxiety, anger, shrink, and low self-esteem, which is based on past studies. Subsequently, positive and effective interventions were proposed, such as family education, and community and school education guidance. Family education guidance includes education guidance for single-parent families and for reorganization families. School education instruction includes home visits and “Mood Corner”. This review further explored that the essence of emotional development in children from divorced families is actually the relationship between the parents after the divorce and interpersonal relationship, which includes the relationship between parents after divorce, the care and way of school and society, and the acceptance of others. Based on the analysis of this review can provide some ways for parents of divorced families to promote their children’s emotional development, as well as for parents of divorced families to pay attention to the importance of children’s emotional development.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231028

    Prospective Memory and Sleep Quality

    Sleep is a state in which the human mind and body are rested, while prospective memory helps humans remember future tasks or plan future events.[1] This study used the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) and the Sleep Quality Questionnaire (PSQI) to assess whether sleep quality affects prospective memory performance. The results showed that participants with PSQI scores between 6 and 21 had significantly lower CAPM scores than those between 0 and 5. Therefore this paper shows poor sleep quality, as measured by PSQI scores, was associated with a higher frequency of prospective memory failure. This result suggests better sleep quality is associated with better performance in prospective memory. Prospective memory is crucial to our daily life, and loss of prospective memory can have dire consequences. For example, people with diabetes forget to take their daily insulin injections. That’s why research on prospective memory is essential.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231031

    The Causes of the Sex Industry Within Japan’s Economic Structure

    Within the patriarchal societal background of Japan, the sex industry serves as a mainstay part of service. As more and more women have higher social access, the gender gap between women and men is still wide by social standards and expectations. What is the thing that keeps women stuck in the position of experiencing social gaze, and how is the sex industry part of the indication of women’s status and current situation? This essay answers the questions by having a reason analysis and case study of interviews of female sex workers and explaining the causes of the flourishing sex industry by social and cultural aspects. Beyond the phenomenon, the essay ties up the factors of causes to analyze a deeper understanding of social problems in Japan: under female objectification, it would be difficult to promote total progress in society. Moreover, in the end, it further illustrates how government can be a channel to solve the problems by modifying the loan system and enhancing complete welfare for sex workers.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231032

    Product Design-based on an Auxiliary System of Fatigue Driving

    Starting from the effects and hazards of fatigue driving, this paper analyzes the current mainstream fatigue driving monitoring scheme: determining whether a driver is in a fatigued driving state by detecting his or her facial features. The idea of aiding this scheme through physical methods is proposed, and a preliminary feasibility discussion and design are presented. The main design solution is to provide a real-time and continuous aid to the facial monitoring method by monitoring the human posture in real time with thin-film sensors, which are installed on the inner side of the steering wheel and under the seat and backrest. Whether this installation would cause discomfort to the driver and how to alert the driver were also considered. Finally, based on the existing design, the possibility of improving the solution is proposed and how it should be implemented afterwards.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231033

    Light Alzheimer’s Hand Exercise Product Design

    Society needs to pay more attention to the MCI group, and theoretical research from product design to production practice is also poor. The difficulty of assistive cognitive impairment products in the market could be better for people with cognitive impairment. There still needs to be a gap in hand movement products for older people. Due to the complexity of cognitive impairment rehabilitation, cognitive impairment has irreversible characteristics in current mental training and treatment processes. Cognitive training in the early morning can slow down the deterioration of the condition and delay phenomena such as memory decline. Therefore, the final product output of this article combines theoretical research on cognitive training needs to investigate existing hand movement products for older adults with mild cognitive impairment; based on the user characteristics of older people, a balanced analysis of the theoretical, market, and user factors conducted to design and study a hand movement product. This product uses pressing to stimulate the relevant acupoints of the hand, combined with repeated voice prompts and other methods, to help older people with MCI prevent and slow down memory decline and, to some extent, to prevent and delay the occurrence and development of mild cognitive impairment.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231034

    Product Design for Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease in Aging Society

    With the continuous development of society, the population of Alzheimer’s disease has been rapidly increasing. The prevention of Alzheimer’s disease should attract everyone’s attention. In the medical aspect, there are constantly some new treatment methods and breakthroughs for Alzheimer’s disease, but there are relatively few educational products on the market to prevent and slow down Alzheimer’s disease. This paper is mainly about brain training products in prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. In this essay, we will explore the symptom of Alzheimer’s disease and the prevention of this disease. The paper adopts a variety of research methods, including literature retrieval method, case analysis method, etc. First, we consulted research papers related to Alzheimer’s disease at home and abroad. At the same time, we conducted a comparative analysis of different types of educational products on shopping websites to find out the advantages and disadvantages of each product. Through these methods to provide the basis for the research and analysis of the elderly and educational products. The number of Alzheimer’s patients is increasing, and the disease not only affect the life of the patient alone, but their family members also need to spare time to take care of them. Therefore, if the disease can be effectively prevented or delayed, it will be beneficial to the family. The burden will also be relatively reduced.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231035

    The Issues Behind Girl Empowerment in Teenage Pregnancy: The Case of Sierra Leone

    This article takes Sierra Leone as an example to analyze the problems of teenage empowerment discourse in addressing teenage pregnancy. By lacking sufficient outside help, girls are likely to be trapped in a situation where they are informed but powerless to change the status quo due to structural inequalities in the environment. They are even trapped in more pain because of the prevalence of girl empowerment. This paper argues that this dilemma is an existing staged problem, and women’s empowerment needs to change from thinking to more targeted social support to reduce the gap. This paper proposes strategies to improve women’s educational attainment as possible support directions. Since Sierra Leone is a typical low-income country, this article has reference value for the similar plight of other low- and middle-income countries.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231036

    Perceptions and Attitudes of Parents and Teachers of Students Within and Outside the Chinese System Towards the LGBT+ Community

    Sexual minority(LGBT+) is a relatively controversial topic, especially in China. Globally, LGBT+ is still a vulnerable group, and there are still cases of bullying and verbal abuse in various countries because of their sexual orientation, and people have mixed opinions about it. But with the development of the internet, people have become more aware of ta it and opinions have changed. And for the official and the general public, the official t attitude is significantly more neutral and conservative. And people with different education have different views on LGBT, and overseas students are significantly more open to the influence of western culture. For people of different ages, the different perceptions they receive can also lead to differences in perceptions. In this paper, we use questionnaires and references to literature and laws to derive the official and private attitudes, and then compare and analyze the perceptions of people of different ages and different educational levels about the LGBT+ community.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231037

    Analysis of Gender Images in Elementary School Mathematics Textbooks of Jiangsu Education Press

    This dissertation analyzes gender role images in elementary school mathematics textbooks of Jiangsu Education Press in China. The study aims to identify whether gender stereotypes and discrimination exist in textbooks and develop strategies to address these issues. The results showed that male characters were more frequently portrayed than female characters in both text and images, and they tended to be depicted as active and confident problem solvers. In contrast, female characters were often shown as passive and dependent learners. Additionally, gender stereotypes were found in portraying male and female characters’ roles and activities, with males frequently engaging in activities related to science and technology, while females were associated with more traditional roles such as homemakers and caregivers. The results of this study will shed light on the nature and extent of gender bias in mathematics textbooks published by Jiangsu Education Press and contribute to their improvement. This study contributes to the broader field of gender bias in education by providing a more specific and focused analysis of gender role representations in elementary school mathematics textbooks.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231039

    Autonomous Driving Ethics: Self-driving Cars Facing Trolley Problems

    The trolley problem has always been one of the most famous ethical dilemmas in human history, arousing millions of arguments and discussions. When self-driving cars, as products of our new age, encounter the trolley problem, the decisions made will be different from those of human beings due to the particularity of the cars and the autopilot algorithm. This paper will first determine the definition and scope of the trolley problem, and then compare the difference between autonomous cars and traditional ones. It then proposes possible guidance for the autopilot algorithms from legal and ethical perspectives. Despite a long history, ethical methods for autonomous cars are still uncertain and hard to be accepted by everyone. Perhaps the combination of different ethical approaches could greatly ameliorate this problem. The feature of hysteresis of law makes it impossible to provide guidance for autonomous cars in time, but laws can help build abstract principles for autopilot algorithms from the perspective of reducing legal liability.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231040

    An Analysis of the Abortion Issue in America: Judicial Activism from the Perspective of Conflict of Rights

    Abortion has been recognized as “the most controversial and emotional issue” in the United States, debate of which has lasting for three decades. The overturning of Roe v. Wade is considered to be one of the major goals of the Republican presidential campaign. As a country with many parties and religions, the debate of abortion has been a constant battle ground between warring factions. Since Roe v. Wade, the pro- and anti-abortion sides have used the right of patients to autonomy and privacy and the unborn’s right to life as arguments, triggering a debate over the right to choose and the right to life. However, there are also more views that the issue raised by the Supreme Court’s overturning of Roe v. Wade is actually a question of whether the law interferes excessively in political issues. Does it infringe on the legislative power of the states and even the spirit of democracy? This paper attempts to start from the appeal of right protection, go back to the Warren Court, and think about the changes of the meaning of “right” under judicial activism, so as to carry on the discussion of democracy and freedom.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231041

    Revitalizing Organ Donation in China: Lessons from Successful Policies in Other Countries and Strategies for Implementation

    In the 21st century, advances in science and technology have led to a significant breakthrough in the average life expectancy of human beings. However, our organs have a limited-service life, and many less fortunate people still face organ failure and necrosis. To tackle this issue, both the government and the public are placing their hopes on organ donation. However, China, as the world’s most populous country, has fewer successful organ donation cases compared to some Western countries. This article aims to analyze the specific reasons for this phenomenon. Furthermore, organ donation has been successfully implemented in many Western countries. By examining successful and failed cases in various countries, this article will analyze their feasibility in light of China’s national conditions. The article will also explore how policies that have worked in other countries can be implemented in China, taking into account the country’s unique cultural and societal contexts. Overall, the article aims to provide insights into the current situation of organ donation in China and to offer recommendations for future policies to improve organ donation rates and save more lives.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231043

    The Effect of Achievement Goals on Academic Anxiety: Emotion Regulation’s Moderating Role

    This study demonstrates the impact of achievement goals on the levels of academic anxiety and to what extent emotion regulation moderates this effect. To be more specific, there are three orientations of achievement goals. Mastery goal, which focuses on task mastery, weakly affecting academic anxiety. The second orientation is performance-approach goal, which aims to receive positive judgement, and the third one is performance-avoidance goal, which emphasize avoiding negative judgement of competence; both enhance the levels of academic anxiety. For emotion regulation, there are two strategies. Cognitive reappraisal works by interpreting emotion-eliciting events by changing their emotional impact, effectively decreasing the levels of academic anxiety. Expressive suppression refers to inhibiting ongoing emotional response, enhancing the levels of academic anxiety. The anxiety set by performance-approach goal can be greatly modulated by reappraisal. However, suppression can significantly magnify anxiety, whatever the achievement goals orientation the individual chooses. That is why if students want to efficiently cope with academic anxiety and achieve better academic performance results, mastery goal is the most suitable orientation of achievement goals, and reappraisal is the most beneficial emotion regulation strategy for students.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231044

    Instructional Strategies for Improving English Language Learners’ Reading Comprehension: A Systematic Review

    English language learners make up the largest portion of English speakers all over the world. Moreover, the population of English language learners is growing fast these days. Therefore, teachers need to learn more effective teaching strategies to handle this rapid change. When studying English, reading comprehension has always been one of the most important skills that students should acquire. This review is a systematic review divided into two parts. The first part focuses on two of What Works Clearinghouse’s reviews; valuable reading comprehension instruction strategies were sifted out. The second part of the review selects four strategies published recently from 2019-2021. These strategies were chosen to support reading comprehension instruction by improving students’ vocabulary inference ability, knowledge connection ability, content prediction ability, and motivation.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231045

    The Effect of Mathematics Anxiety on Math Performance

    Mathematics anxiety has long been a hotly debated topic of research in education and psychology, and studies have confirmed the prevalence of mathematics anxiety among learners of different ages and its impact on learners’ mathematics performance. This literature review attempted to organize the discuss two research points under the topic of mathematics anxiety. The first part focuses on analyzing the mediating factors between mathematics anxiety and outcomes in order to clarify the mediators of their effects and the process of mediation. The second part is related to the differences of mathematics anxiety in different age groups and describes the causes of mathematics anxiety in different groups to provide strategies for learners to improve their mathematics performance and directions for educators to improve their teaching. Based on these arguments, a foundation for subsequent research on math anxiety is provided. However, more empirical studies are needed to justify the findings and hypotheses.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-10-26 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/15/20231046

    Young People’s Attention to Health and Wellness after the Normalization of the Epidemic Situation

    Nowadays, Covid-19 prevention and control measures have a large effect on society. In this social context, some young people are experiencing various degrees of physical and psychological problems, which prompts them to seek things that can provide them with health and psychological comfort. In today’s era of developed social media, wellness has become the object they seek and promote. Considering the removal of Covid-19 prevention and control measures in China, as well as the psychological state of contemporary young people, this article explores the psychological state of young people during and after the pandemic, as well as their level of attention towards health preservation. The paper collects and analyzes comments with relevant tags from multiple platforms and discusses the psychological state of young people and their attention toward health preservation before and after the end of pandemic prevention and control measures. After preliminary data analysis, this paper manually annotated the data to train a neural network for text classification. The research results show that young people displayed psychological problems on social media before and after the pandemic, and their attention to health preservation remained high.

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