Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the International Conference on Global Politics and Socio-Humanities

    Conference Date







    978-1-83558-361-6 (Print)

    978-1-83558-362-3 (Online)

    Published Date



    Enrique Mallen, Sam Houston State University

    Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia


  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230548

    Application of Gamification Teaching in Primary School

    As IT develops rapidly and the nation attaches great importance to education, it is difficult for the original teaching methods to meet the requirements of current curriculum standards. Learning knowledge in a game-based way stimulates students' curiosity and desire to explore and enhances students' initiative in learning. It can effectively cultivate innovative ideas and deepen students' understanding of knowledge. The gamification strategy can not only make the classroom active but also improve the quality of teaching. However, there is no natural integration of gamification teaching in China. From the teachers' perspective, some school teachers are relatively old and do not know how to operate electronic equipment, and there is no professional training. In addition, integrating games and teaching naturally is also challenging from the perspective of software applications. This paper studies how to apply the gamification teaching method to the classroom based on the requirements of the new curriculum standard, analyzes the impact of the gamification teaching method on students, and the problems and solutions encountered in the application process.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230575

    Impact of Agricultural Mechanization on Grain Production in China

    The main purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between agricultural mechanization and grain production. Our main country of study is China because it is a large agricultural country, and the choice of China is representative and meaningful. The methodology chosen in this paper is to de-trend the data, which helps us to put aside the time factor to see the relationship that exists between them in a more objective and clear way. The time period of the data that be collected is from 2003 to 2021 because this time period is the period of rapid development of agricultural mechanization in China. The author also details the history of agricultural mechanization in China in the article. Finally, it can be seen that based on the results, agricultural mechanization and grain yield are positively and strongly correlated, and mechanization has a strong impact on grain yield. This paper also provides some policy recommendations for agriculture and farmers based on our research; it can be believed that the policies can really help agriculture because a lot of research has been conducted. The author also hopes that this article will be of some help to readers.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230578

    The Dilemma and Improvement of the International Trade and Investment Settlement Mechanism--Take the WTO Appellate Body and China's Belt and Road

    The suspension of the WTO’s Appellate Body is directly related to the integrity and stability of the dispute settlement mechanism. Based on the analysis of Dispute Settlement Understanding’s 90-day mandatory regulation on the appeal period and the judge system involved, this paper puts forward suggestions on the trial period, the working mechanism, and the selection mechanism of relevant judges, hoping that the Appellate Body can resume operation soon and survive the crisis. The Investor-to-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) mechanism is a common dispute settlement method in the field of international investment. However, with the development of the global economy and the increase in the scale of international investment, the ISDS mechanism has also faced some challenges and controversies. Chinese investors are also actively exploring the reform of the ISDS mechanism to improve fairness, transparency, and predictability in the face of ISDS difficulties in the BRI. This article will take the WTO appeal mechanism as a reference to explore the reform path of China's ISDS.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230580

    The Realistic Dilemma and Reform Path of IHR2005

    The International Health Regulations2005 (IHR2005) plays a significant role in the governance of global public health security. Nevertheless, when addressing the global public health crisis triggered by the 2020 novel corona virus epidemic, the IHR2005 shows some shortcomings. For example, the treaty cannot effectively coordinate the timely implementation of health measures such as epidemic prevention surveillance, situation assessment, technical cooperation and financial support. Using the case analysis, the literature search and other research methods, the paper analyzes the dilemmas of IHR2005, such as the ambiguity of the text itself, the limitation of the scope of application, and the failure to completely abandon the national centralism. To solve these problems, this paper put forward three solutions: The first is to reconstruct the text, and to name only a few controversial places that can be directly converted into text. The second is to reconstruct the mechanism, like establishing a more mighty system on the basis of the original mechanism. The third is to reconstruct the institution, which should strengthen technical cooperation with non-state actors while adjusting regulations that are not adapted to the development of The Times, and consolidate the leadership position of the World Health Organization (WHO).

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230583

    Analysis of the Application of the Responsibility to Protect in International Law

    Since the establishment of international organizations, international humanitarian intervention has been widely used in dealing with international disputes, until it was first introduced in written form in the World Summit Outcome in 2005, which emphasized the need to establish broader collective security and was endorsed by heads of State. However, in the process of applying the responsibility to protect, many problems have been shown, such as the problem of "inhumane" consequences caused by forceful intervention; the problem of deficiencies in the application procedure; the problem of ambiguity in the interpretation of the responsibility to protect, etc. This paper is based on the practice of the international community, and analyzes the solutions to the problems of the current situation in the light of typical cases. In the application of the responsibility to protect, the basic principles of international law should be taken into account, and in the process of interpretation, the concept of "three pillars" should be followed when the concept of the responsibility to protect was put forward, so as to prevent the expansion of interpretation. The procedure of the responsibility to protect should be optimized, with the establishment of a professional assessment body "ex-ante" to strike a balance between legitimacy and efficiency, the improvement of the monitoring mechanism "in the middle of the process" to ensure the smooth implementation of interference, and the improvement of the accountability mechanism "ex-post" to prevent interference from occurring. "Improve accountability mechanisms to prevent abuse of the right to intervene and ensure that all peaceful means have been exhausted before intervening by force, so as to promote the better application and development of the responsibility to protect in today's world.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230585

    Foreign Aid and the Poverty Trap: Increasing Aid Effectiveness by Limiting

    This paper explores the practical effectiveness of foreign aid in eradicating poverty in recipient countries. In recent years, poverty traps have become a more common problem in poor countries. The population of many developing countries is in multidimensional poverty, not only facing poor living conditions, but from a macro perspective, countries are difficult to get out of the cycle of poverty due to lack of capital, technology and reasonable institutions. Foreign aid, on the other hand, mainly provides support and help to poor countries in response to these problems, which are also the main aspects of its effectiveness analyzed in this paper. Based on the existing empirical results and theoretical analysis of foreign aid, this paper holds that the effectiveness of foreign aid will change due to the different objective conditions of recipient countries. In general, while it is obvious that foreign aid can promote economic development and infrastructure construction in poor countries, the effectiveness of foreign aid is weakened to some extent due to corruption and unreasonable distribution system in some recipient countries. Therefore, foreign aid should be targeted limited according to the existing problems of recipient countries to improve its effectiveness.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230586

    Welfare Reform and Social Integration: Analysis of the Impact of Policy Adjustments on the Integration of Vulnerable Groups into Society and the Promotion of Social Cohesion

    The elderly, children, the disabled, the poor, etc. make up a significant portion of the population, and they are the most vulnerable groups in society. Without the help of relevant policies, their life and employment could be very difficult. Recently, social stratification has become so severe that government around the world can’t longer afford to ignore this large part of population. In order to help them integrate into society, the international community has introduced a number of policies to help them. This paper takes China as an example, divide the part focus on different group, discusses how these China's policies can help the vulnerable groups, and uses case studies to demonstrate the impact of these policies on the integration of the vulnerable groups into the society. Most of these policies have worked, this is because the government takes into account the personality and ideological factors of different people, we find these specific policies and will show in the cases

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230584

    Sustainable Consumption and Social Justice: Should Countries Take Action to Ban the Sale of Products Made under Sweatshop Conditions?

    This paper investigates the subject of sweatshop labour and the debate over whether countries should prohibit the sale of products produced under such conditions. The introduction emphasises the importance of better working conditions and minimal standards in sweatshop factories, while also admitting that customers may be ready to pay slightly higher costs to support better working circumstances for sweatshop workers. However, economists say that sweatshop labour is preferable than not working or working for extremely low wages, and that a blanket ban on sweatshop products could result in job losses and other negative repercussions. The literature study explores a range of viewpoints on sweatshop labour, including moral and financial grounds. Additionally, it highlights how consumer movements and market pressure influence businesses to improve working conditions. The paper also emphasises the issue's complexity and the need for a fair policy that considers employees' rights and practical factors. To improve the working circumstances of sweatshop workers, a multi-pronged strategy is recommended. This method includes consumer pressure, government regulation, and voluntary codes of conduct. The importance of striking a compromise that takes into account differing points of view and deals with the complexities of the sweatshop labour issue is emphasised in the conclusion. Overall, the study provides a thorough assessment of the subject, emphasising the necessity for ethical manufacturing processes and improved working conditions while taking into account economic ramifications and unexpected consequences.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230587

    Sustainable Urban Planning and Climate Change Adaptation: Disaster Protection Strategies for Global Urban Development

    Urban and rural differentiation emerged since the start of industrial development of human societies. With the need of large amount of human capital to adapt to mass production, rapid urbanization, as a natural course, changed the nature of human lifestyle permanently. Unintended consequences appear along this process of significant economic growth and prosperity, with climate change, which is due to carbon emission, as one of the most prominent problems. Climate change brings various disasters, with typhoons, floods, and wildfires as to name a few. Transition to urban lifestyles, without the realization of sustainability, is one of the primary issues nowadays. This paper discusses the process of urbanization and the usage of crude oils as an automatic method to fuel the cities, and their relations with climate change. It then proposes important criteria to follow for sustainable urban constructions and strategies for disaster prevention.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230620

    International Protection of Marine Living Resources in Exclusive Economic Zone

    From the perspective of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, this paper analyzes the protection of marine living resources in this area and puts forward corresponding measures and suggestions. This paper argues that it is necessary to perfect the relevant system of the Exclusive Economic Zone to improve the protection status of marine living resources under the background that marine living resources have been greatly damaged and are in rapid exhaustion. In order to fulfill the ultimate goal of international protection of marine living resources, this paper points out the necessity to perfect the legal concepts and international law regulations. Special attention shall be paid to the role of customary international law, improvement of the compliance punishment system, and optimization of the global cooperation mechanism so as to continuously strengthen the management and international cooperation to achieve global and systematic protections of marine living resources.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230618

    Decline and Revival: Liberal Party and Liberalism

    Among the many political parties influenced by liberalism, the British Liberal Party and the Liberal Democrats are two typical examples of a lineage. In 1906, the Liberal Party won the general election with an absolute majority of the vote, which marked the culmination of the Liberal Party's development. During the following several decades, with the development of British society and politics and the blow of World War I, the Liberal Party gradually lost its political niche in party competition. After World War II, the Liberal Party, led by Thorpe, worked hard to regain its footing. On this basis, this paper focuses on two main questions. What caused the demise of British Liberal Party after the First World War and how did the merger with Social Democratic Party accelerate the revival of the Liberal Party. Using the methodological approach of literature review, this paper will analyse the decline and revival of the Liberals, combining the perspectives of political science and history. It is argued that the decline of British Liberal Party should be attributed to the changing ideology, the rise of Labour as well as the catalysis of World War I. As for the revival of Liberal Party, it is stressed that its merger with Social Democrats in 1988 has been significant in facilitating its vote-winning and transition to parliamentary strength.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230622

    On the Epistemology of Freire's Pedagogy

    This paper serves as an analysis of Freire’s pedagogy from a philosophical perspective, illustrating how knowledge is acquired in pedagogy and relating pedagogy back to its philosophical sources. This paper is structured into four sessions: 1. an overview of Freire’s pedagogy; 2. an epistemological analysis on pedagogy; 3. Freire’s epistemological materialism; 4. the philosophical source of Freire’s pedagogy. The first session is a brief introduction to pedagogy, clarifying what problems pedagogy is trying to solve and how pedagogy addresses these problems. The second session fits pedagogy into a broader philosophical context, explaining how it is possible to acquire knowledge within pedagogy and what type of knowledge is acquired. A division of “knowing how” and “knowing that” is introduced in this session, ending with the conclusion that “knowing how” is more emphasized in pedagogy and that knowledge in Freire’s view, has a broader meaning than merely accumulating facts. The last two sessions focus on where pedagogy is derived from and how this context determines pedagogy’s framework and limitations. This session demonstrates that dialectical materialism and Marx are inevitable when discussing Freire’s pedagogy, displaying how important concepts in pedagogy arise from dialectical materialism and Marx, and figuring out where pedagogy goes beyond these philosophical backgrounds.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230625

    The Role of Memory Enhancing Techniques in Learning--Examining the Effects of Item-level Brain Training Techniques on Learning

    Brain training techniques are commonly used to enhance an individual’s learning and memory, especially in classroom teaching and self-directed learning contexts. Among a range of techniques, the item-level methods that focus on boosting memory for a specific item are the most well-known and widely applied ones. In this work, the mechanisms underlying two item-level brain training techniques, spaced repetition and retrieval practice, are investigated. Studies have proved that learners who are trained according to a spaced repetition schedule are prone to show better acquisition of language and science concepts compared to those who learn under mass conditions. Yet, the method currently relies on somehow primitive algorithms. Therefore, the optimal time interval for the second exposure to a learnt content could vary primarily among individuals. Reviewing pieces of information through retrieval practice, based on the testing effect, also leads to better performance in final assessments in most cases. Frequent testing with relatively few questions each time seems to produce the best results. However, most of the research on these two techniques up to now is in semantic learning scenarios such as language acquisition, so the evidence for determining the effectiveness of either method on other types of learning is somehow few.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230648

    Evaluating Harkness with China’s Growing Interest in Project-Based Learning Studies in High School

    As China advances its educational methods, it has incorporated innovative approaches into high school education, notably Project-Based Learning (PBL), which emphasizes hands-on learning experiences to improve academic performances among students. Another pedagogy, Harkness learning, shares similar educational goals with PBL, prompting discussions about their potential collaborative use in Chinese high school classrooms. This paper examines the feasibility of such implementation by exploring the origins, influences, and practical considerations of Harkness learning, introducing China's high school education system and discussing PBL implementation in China. The paper concludes that Harkness and PBL can potentially complement each other effectively, as Harkness specializes in refining academic abilities, while PBL aims to enhance general subject knowledge. As there is a relative scarcity of research material in this specific field, this literature review holds substantial importance for scholars who intend to conduct further research on the collaborative integration of Harkness and PBL, particularly within the context of implementation in China.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230649

    The Advantages and Disadvantages of ChatGPT in Humanities, Social Sciences and STEM Education: From a Comparative Perspective

    ChatGPT is a powerful language model capable of understanding and generating human language. The increasing number of students utilizing ChatGPT to support their academic endeavors has gained prominence, prompting discussions surrounding technology and its impact on education. With the emerging trend of ChatGPT, students now could enjoy a great deal of conveniences, but there are also a number of problems while using ChatGPT. Despite extensive research investigating the correlation between ChatGPT and education, there remains a notable gap in comprehensively examining the similarities and differences concerning the benefits and drawbacks of humanities, social sciences compared to STEM fields. This research intends to delve into these domains, employing qualitative analysis to acquire pertinent data. This research will be rested on cognitivism theory and the methodological approach will be aligned to the theory. This approach involves a combination of an open-ended survey and semi-structured interviews for high school and undergraduate students to holistically explore these facets. The finding of this research might enlighten some students in using technological tools in their study in the future.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230655

    Navigating the Mind's Bilingual Maze: Understanding Cognitive Advantages Across Variables

    It is widely held that bilinguals hold cognitive advantages in working memory compared to monolinguals; however, is there really a conclusive argument? The present study delves into the intriguing relationship between bilingualism and working memory, exploring the debate of potential cognitive advantages that bilinguals might possess. By analyzing seminal works, key studies supporting bilingual advantage, and perspectives challenging this view, this paper synthesizes findings regarding bilingualism’s cognitive benefits beyond language processing, delineating its significant contributions and its methodological and conceptual limitations. Additionally, the study considers the potential implications of bilingual advantage in education and in addressing neurodegenerative diseases. It identifies substantive gaps in the current understanding, including a lack of standardization in experimental designs and reporting standards and a limited focus on confounding variables.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230656

    Whether and How Handedness Affects Individuals’ Cognitive Performance? – A Literature Review

    This literature review article aimed to compile research published in recent years regarding the relationship between bodily habits, specifically handedness, and cognitive performance in memory, attention, and information processing. The article contains three chapters, discussing each aspect separately with a collection of studies and evaluations. The article is able to combine results from studies and form a model graph specialized for studies’ summaries. Through the synthesis of investigations, handedness seemed to have some relationship with cognition. To be more precise, ICH individuals (those people with mixed hands) have the capacity to create a connection between brain hemispheres, which enhances their performance in memory tests and allows them to better integrate divergent information. In addition, people tend to focus more on their dominant hands; this can affect a person’s attention to things happening around them. Lastly, right-handed people performed better in generic cognition tests, and cross-activation of brain lateralization has been demonstrated.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230658

    How Childhood’s Linguistic Critical Period Influences Adult English Language Acquisition Phonological Insights in Consonants for Chinese-English Bilingual Learners

    The Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) has always been a topic of continuous debate in second language acquisition. This paper reports on a study investigating the ultimate achievement in English consonant pronunciation of late second-language (English) learners whose native language is Chinese. The research aims to explore the impact of the CPH on the ultimate attainment in English consonant pronunciation by comparing scores of adult and child English learners. This study involves speech samples from three groups of learners: one group is native English speakers as a control group, the second is late Chinese learners of English who are highly successful in listening, reading, and writing, and the third group is Chinese native speakers who started learning English from a young age. Professional native English speakers and AI will be used to score their speech samples. Throughout the experiment, we hypothesize the critical period does affect the production of phonological consonants. In addition, the results of the study could offer an enlightening point for pedagogy and could provide some advice for phonetic English learning in second language acquisition.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-19 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/46/20230674

    The Role of Parenting Style and Childhood Friendship in Predicting Risk of Adulthood Psychopathy

    In this work, we investigated the role of parenting style and childhood friendship in predicting the risk of adulthood psychopathy. This paper concluded that negative parenting, parental psychopathic traits and antisocial friendship played a vital role in shaping the antisocial behaviour of their offspring. Additionally, there was an inconsistent relationship between parental psychopathic traits (mainly focusing on conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits), negative parenting and offspring’s psychopathic traits, highlighting the importance of sensitive caring from parents before adolescence. However, children’s empathy levels have a moderating effect on their perceptions of parenting which directly affected the development of psychopathic traits. Likewise, childhood friendship can either alleviate or induce children’s antisocial behaviour, and opposite-sex friends were found to be positively correlated with disruptive behaviours. Unexpectedly, the quality of friendships, peer pressure, and positive parenting have a profound impact and they interrelate with one another in the formation of individual behaviours. By considering these factors collectively, this work gained the capacity to predict the probability of children developing psychopathy, and potentially utilize this knowledge for intervention purposes.

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