Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Interdisciplinary Humanities and Communication Studies

    Conference Date







    978-1-83558-171-1 (Print)

    978-1-83558-172-8 (Online)

    Published Date



    Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia

    Enrique Mallen, Sam Houston State University


  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231242

    Environment Risks and Their Responses to Chinese Companies Investing in Countries along the “Belt and Road”: Solutions Based on the International Investment Law

    In recent years, China’s investment in countries along the “Belt and Road” has gradually expanded. Minerals, energy, manufacturing, infrastructure, engineering construction, etc. are key industries for Chinese companies to invest in countries along the road. Legal deficiencies in the host country’s environment, behavioral defects of overseas investment companies, and the lack of regulatory norms and weak supervision of environment risks in China increase the potential environmental liability risk of Chinese companies. On the purpose of reducing the occurrence of environment risks, this paper takes the international investment law as the entry point, adopts the literature review method and data induction method, and combines a large number of environment risk treatment cases of Chinese companies in the project investment, and proposes five solutions: include environmental protection clauses when signing international treaties with host countries; Strengthen companies’ environmental responsibilities and environmental disclosure obligations; Special legislation for overseas investment by companies; Fully use the role of overseas investment insurance and establishing a diversified mechanism for resolving international environmental disputes.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231241

    Reform Direction and Development Prospects of Cross-Border Civil and Commercial Litigation in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area: Under “the Belt and Road” Initiative

    Since the inception of “the Belt and Road” Initiative in 2013, China’s foreign economic and trade engagements have experienced ongoing growth and expansion. In response to the broader cross-border market, the establishment of a multifaceted dispute resolution framework encompassing litigation, mediation, and arbitration has emerged as a crucial undertaking. This framework is designed to address the growing complexity of international cooperation disputes. Among them, litigation is the most credible and the last guarantee of fairness and justice. China’s cross-border civil and commercial litigation (Hereinafter referred to as the CBCC litigation) has developed rapidly under “the Belt and Road” Initiative. However, there are still a series of problems in case filing, service, application of law, proof of foreign laws, and execution of overseas judgments. Due to the national policy of “one country, two systems”, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (Hereinafter referred to as the Greater Bay Area) has gained unique regional advantages and strategic value in the CBCC litigation reform and practice. This research summarises the development status of the Greater Bay Area since “the Belt and Road” Initiative. It identifies three development directions for the modernisation reform of the litigation in the region: high efficiency, legalisation, and internationalisation. In these three directions, the Greater Bay Area has made certain achievements. These achievements prove that China’s CBCC litigation is actively entering the international track, deepening the determination of international cooperation and exposing the shortcomings of the current cross-border judicial practice. China still has considerable space to progress ahead in enhancing the effectiveness of cross-border dispute resolution, integrating reform initiatives into legal statutes, and advancing international judicial collaboration.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231240

    Nuclear Waste Dumping and the Improvement of International Legislation for the Protection of the Marine Environment -A Perspective on the Dumping of Nuclear Waste into the Sea in Japan

    The ocean is a vast and complex ecosystem covering 70% of the Earth’s surface, providing various resources and energy for humanity. However, with the development of human society, the function of the ocean has gradually shifted from a “harvesting ground” to a “dumping ground.” With large-scale damage to the marine environment, events like the 2011 Japanese nuclear leak and the recent decision by the Japanese Prime Minister to discharge nuclear wastewater into the Pacific Ocean have intensified the discourse on marine environmental protection. Different countries have shown varying stances and attitudes towards these events. This paper explores how individuals should bear national responsibility in nuclear pollution incidents, including the discharge of nuclear wastewater, from the perspective of international marine environmental protection law. The introduction section introduces the research background, methodology, and objectives. The second part discusses the legal analysis of Japan’s disposal of nuclear waste into the ocean. The third part presents the improvement of international legislation on marine environmental protection. The fourth part emphasizes the significant impact and global ramifications of nuclear wastewater discharge, urging clarity on the Japanese government’s responsibility to safeguard coastal nations and accelerate the safe treatment of nuclear wastewater.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231239

    Tort Liability for Trans-boundary Marine Environmental Pollution: Japan’s Radioactive Wastewater Discharge into the Sea as an Entry Point

    Currently, the problem of trans-boundary marine environmental pollution is becoming increasingly prominent and Japan’s insistence on discharging nuclear wastewater despite protests from other countries has raised concerns among the population. Researchers have found that international conventions and other sources of international environmental law are lack of a liability system for trans-boundary environmental pollution. Therefore, this paper looks for gaps by applying the normative analysis method to retrieve the relevant liability system at the institutional level in order to compare and analyze it, and secondly, using the case analysis method to think about how to improve the liability system through case law practical perspective. The study concludes that it can be constructed from two perspectives, namely the responsibility of the State and the tort responsibility of private subject to adopt the system of tortious responsibility and both serve in parallel with that caused by environmental pollution compensate for damage. Due to the irreversibility of environmental pollution, initiating legal proceedings for redress after the event is often not the ultimate goal. Therefore, the ex-ante blocking mechanism need to be further improved and domestic law needs to be constantly improved to compensate for the shortcomings of international law. That help our country deal with the marine environmental pollution to provide methods and ideas.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231246

    A Review of Research on Fossilization in Second Language Learning

    Language fossilization is the most important feature of interlanguage, and interlanguage is a universal and inevitable phenomenon during the second language learning process. Therefore, it is necessary to study the phenomenon of fossilization. In recent years, there has been more and more researches on language fossilization, but there are different opinions on the causes and manifestation. To comprehend the psychological mechanism underlying fossilization, and explore the possible causes of fossilization and its influence on foreign language teaching strategies. The research on language fossilization needs to be continued. Based on Selinker’s main views of fossilization, this paper expounds on the possible causes and the main manifestations of language fossilization followed by a discussion on fossilization by Krashen, Elis and other scholars, while in view of the problems in the process of Chinese students’ English learning and English teachers’ teaching methods. This paper also puts forward some corresponding preventive strategies and suggestions.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231245

    A Review of Studies on Foreign Language Anxiety

    Presently, English is globally recognized as a lingua franca, rendering English language acquisition a widespread pursuit. In parallel, this recognition has cast a pervasive shadow of apprehension upon foreign language learning. Nonetheless, this phenomenon gives rise to specific challenges. Notably, not everyone possesses a disposition suited for acquiring a foreign language, leading the majority to grapple with formidable obstacles. In this study, the author conducted an in-depth exploration of foreign language learning anxiety by delving into the research of esteemed scholars. The overarching aim was to fathom how apprehension linked to foreign language acquisition impacts the very process. In the main, anxiety predominantly functions as a barrier hindering the acquisition of a second language. Nevertheless, it’s pivotal to recognize that anxiety can paradoxically serve as a catalyst for second language acquisition. The intention is to propel forthcoming empirical research geared toward scrutinizing the intricate relationship between second language acquisition and the anxiety entwined with learning a foreign language. This endeavor seeks to equip a larger contingent of students with a comprehensive grasp of foreign language learning anxiety, enabling them to adeptly navigate the dynamic connection between anxiety and foreign language acquisition. At the same time, it is hoped that it will provide some lessons for educators and researchers to make the topic of anxiety in foreign language learning more colorful.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231244

    Review of Research on EFL Learners’ Mental Lexicon

    Research on the second language (L2) mental lexicon has become popular since this century, under the influence of literature on the first language (L1) mental lexicon. Among various L2, English is one of the most commonly learned second languages by non-native speakers all over the world. This paper reviews literature about major findings of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ mental lexicon through the results of word association tests, analyzed from three perspectives: syntagmatic responses, paradigmatic responses and form responses. Also, this paper summarizes some influencing factors of the results from empirical studies. By reading previous research on EFL learners’ mental lexicon, this paper tries to find out some pedagogical implications to help improve the efficiency of L2 vocabulary teaching. The findings of empirical studies show that EFL learners’ mental lexicon is quite different from native speakers. Although both groups’ mental lexicon is mainly associated with semantic responses, the specific links are distinct from each other. EFL learners are more likely to give form-related responses, but whether the proportion of syntagmatic or paradigmatic responses is higher varies in different experiments.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231249

    Regional Identity and Football Fandom in Jiangsu Province: A Study of Inter-City Alienation and Provincial Identification

    This study delves into the socio-cultural dynamics of regional identity and football fandom in Jiangsu Province, China. It investigates the lack of provincial identification among residents and their alienation from other cities within the province, as well as the interplay between this distinctive phenomenon of territorial identification and the football support base of football clubs in Jiangsu Province. Employing a qualitative approach, the research utilized in-depth interviews and participant observation to gather comprehensive data. The study reveals that that regional identity largely determines how well fans support different teams, and football fandom significantly shapes regional identities as well. Interestingly, the sense of regional identity behind a club like Jiangsu Suning FC, which is named after a province, is quite different from those other clubs that are named after a particular city. The rituals and practices associated with supporting these teams create a shared identity among fans, reinforcing their unique regional identity. This study contributes to understanding the complex dynamics of regional identity, inter-city relations, and the role of sports in shaping these dynamics in contemporary China.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231267

    Analysis of the Tragedy in Wilde's Fairy Tales and Its Compatibility with Children's Education

    Wilde is a famous representative writer of aestheticism in the 19th century, and his fairy tales are particularly eye-catching. Wilde's fairy tales are quite romantic, but some are full of tragedy, such as The Nightingale and the Rose and The Happy Prince, and the selfless, helpful characters end up in tragic ends, which make people feel compassion. Meanwhile, fairy tales have always had great significance in educating children. According to this, it can be explored whether these tragic plots need to appear in children's literature, the characteristics and causes of tragedy in Wilde's fairy tales by analysing multiple documents and thinking about related subject knowledge, and analysing the tragedy of fairy tales and the compatibility of children's education, so that there can be better explanations of the role of tragic stories on children's education, thus recognising the necessity of tragedy in fairy tales. At the same time, research based on limitations looks forward to future in-depth exploration, encourages more in-depth and comprehensive thinking on related topics, better recognises and uses tragic colours in the educational value of fairy tales, and makes fairy tales, a genre of children's literature, better contribute to children's learning and development.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231266

    A Study on the Utilization of Protest Memes by Chinese University Students

    Social media has gradually taken over the lives of young people in the Z-era. With the birth of memes, offline communication is not a necessary mode of communication. It has attracted the attention of experts in a variety of fields. They investigated the spread of memes, language and social communication, and the privacy crisis. There is, however, a gap in the causes and effects of protest memes that are popular among youth groups. Thus, the topic of this paper is the origin of protest memes in social media and their impact. According to the questionnaire on the utilization of protest memes in social media among Chinese university students, the study will collect data from the questions they filled in on the causes and effects of protest memes and psychological situations. Therefore, the percentage analysis is the basis of this study. According to the results, most young people use protest memes because of anxiety or dissatisfaction in school and life, which cannot be vented in reality. Also, there are two sides of protest memes. On the one hand, they meet the emotional catharsis needs of young people and the development of industrial chains at the economic level. On the other hand, they can mislead youth groups about their values and violate the rights of certain people’s images.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231284

    Exploring the Influencing Factors and Challenges of Chinese Second Language Learners in Learning English as a Second Language

    The author find that people’s learning speed is different, some people even find it really difficult to learn English. The author conduct a survey about the influencing factors and challenges of second language learning. The survey result reviews that most people think lack of native environment the most important factor, that troubles them from learning English. Most of the respondents think writing is the hardest for them, and lifestyle and learning strategy are two most important factors which influence their English learning. Based on the survey, the author will analyze how different factors (for example: lifestyle, character, learning strategy…) influence people’s English learning. Besides, the author will also try to find out some effective way to help with people’s English learning.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231288

    The Performance of Educational Informatization and Influence on Educational Equity in China

    Within the context of the “Internet +” era, innovative teaching platforms are continuously improved and optimized, and information technology assists schools in improving the quality and efficiency of education, achieving a harmonious development of science and education. This article adopts literature review to gain an in-depth understanding of the current situation of educational informatization in promoting educational equity. Starting from the perspective of educational informatization, the article first explains the concepts of educational informatization and educational equity, then traces their development process to gain a comprehensive understanding of the progress and current situation. Finally, the article discusses the impact of educational informatization on promoting educational equity, analyzing the existing problems to grasp the historical context and recognize the current situation, which is of significant importance for further leveraging the advantages of educational informatization to promote the development of educational equity. Through the study of educational informatization, it can be seen that in the era of comprehensively building a well-off society, educational informatization is like a blazing torch, igniting the transformation of education and schools, where educational equity is brought into reality in terms of opportunities, conditions, processes, and results, just like the sun shining.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231293

    Comparative Analysis of Expert Testimony in Cases Involving Mental Health as Mitigating Factor

    In the 20th century, the reliance on expert witnesses grew due to technological advancements and complex legal cases. Notably, the scientific foundation of psychology gained widespread acknowledgment, bestowing a pivotal role upon psychologists, particularly those specializing in forensic psychology, within the courtroom. In the United States, experts assist impartial judgments in the adversarial litigation model. This article conducts a comparative analysis of two cases—one in South Korea and one in the United States—where forensic psychologists played a central role in providing crucial assistance to defendants grappling with mental health issues. These cases shed light on the discernible distinctions within the expert witness systems between the two countries, emphasizing the profound impact of legal traditions on the significance attributed to expert opinions and the dynamics of equitable legal decision-making. This exploration underscores the evolving role of expert witnesses in an ever-advancing legal landscape, where their expertise continues to be a lodestar guiding the pursuit of justice.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231305

    The Identity Dilemma among Inter-Generational Immigrants -- Take the United States in the 21st Century as an Example

    For the United States, immigration has rapidly diversified its ethnic composition. With the arrival of people from different regions with different cultural origins and religious beliefs, some social problems have arisen while constantly exploring new living Spaces. Therefore, in order to solve the problem of the social identity of American immigrants and the identity dilemma between generations of immigrants, this paper adopts the literature research method and finds that from the initial “entry verification” to “voucher entry”, either way, will bring the experience of belonging to American immigrants. Differences and even contradictions between groups caused by racial differences and cultural barriers are everywhere in society, and even new immigrants will produce huge contradictions due to differences in identity and cultural identity. Only by grasping their own identity and sticking to their own “Tao” in mother culture and immigrant culture can they avoid the end of duckweed in chaotic times.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231307

    A Critical Examination of the Applicability of Standards for Determining Infringement of Information Network Transmission Rights

    Currently, there is controversy surrounding the standards for determining infringement of information network transmission rights. However, the application of these standards is of great significance for the regulation of information network transmission rights and holds important implications for the internet industry. Therefore, it should not be overlooked. Regarding the existing standards for determining infringement of information network transmission rights, a wholesale rejection of server standard is irrational, and the hasty application of new standards is also challenging to justify. An objective examination of various existing standards is essential, recognizing both their problem-solving capabilities and their inherent limitations. The adoption of multiple standards may be a feasible approach to address these issues.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231310

    The Educational Value of Outdoor Sports in the Formation of Team Awareness among Chinese Secondary School Students

    This study aims to explore the educational value of outdoor sports in the process of team awareness formation among Chinese secondary school students. Through literature review and questionnaire surveys, this essay have found that outdoor sports play a significant role in cultivating team awareness among secondary school students in China. Outdoor sports promote cooperation and interaction among students, nurturing their communication, leadership, and problem-solving abilities. Furthermore, the challenging and dynamic nature of outdoor environments can stimulate students' adaptability and innovative thinking. However, there are still some limitations in current research in this field. Therefore, based on relevant literature, this essay conducted an in-depth study on the educational value of outdoor sports in the formation of team awareness among Chinese secondary school students. Additionally, schools and teachers should emphasize the importance of outdoor sports by providing more outdoor activity opportunities, allowing students to experience the joy of teamwork in practice and cultivating their team awareness and overall competence. This study provides theoretical and practical support for the cultivation of team awareness among secondary school students and offers recommendations to enhance practices in this field.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231312

    Research on the Impact of Dynamic Assessment on Second Language Learning

    This paper explores the role of dynamic assessment systems in our daily English teaching, discusses whether second language learners can improve their English reading ability by using dynamic assessment systems, and highlights the impact of dynamic assessment on teaching and some other important aspects. This study adopted Science Direct and Google Scholar to provide academic references and academic support for this research. which can conclude that dynamic evaluation is useful for second-language acquisition, Dynamic evaluation can create a pleasant and relaxed learning environment, and timely adjustment of learning plans can be targeted to students’ feedback. In addition to helping students understand what they are not familiar with, dynamic assessment can also help teachers better understand students’ learning dynamics, which is of great benefit to teachers. Second language acquisition is getting more and more attention nowadays. Dynamic assessment is more widely applied in education, and research has found that the system of dynamic assessment is helpful to both teachers and students. Dynamic evaluation in teaching is a real-time evaluation system that can really provide more accurate one-to-one service. This paper focuses on the impact of dynamic assessment on English learning.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231315

    Pandora’s Pixel Box: The Rise of AI Art and the Ethical Dilemma of Creativity

    The emergence of AI-generated art has sparked a debate on the ethical considerations and social impacts of this new form of creativity. This paper explores the current approaches to AI (Artificial Intelligence) art generators, including the ongoing debate on AI art’s creativity and the issues of copyright, ownership, and fair use. Meanwhile, it systematically examines the standard procedures of AI art generators, including machine learning models such as GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks) and text-to-image models. Moreover, the psychological views of art are explored, highlighting the importance of novelty and unexpectedness in determining the relevance of stimuli. The paper presents arguments in favor of and against AI-generated art as a form of creativity, considering factors such as the expression of emotions, the uniqueness of the artwork, and the copyrightability of AI-generated content. The discussion delves into the fair use of copyrighted images in AI-generated art and evaluates the four factors of fair use. The differences in copyright laws internationally are also examined, with some countries recognizing ownership of AI-generated content by programmers. Finally, the paper concludes that AI-generated artwork has the potential to be a positive force in the art world while acknowledging the need for further research and discussion on the legal and ethical implications of AI-generated art.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231317

    Research on the Boundaries of Finding Director’s Fault in the Tort of Misrepresentation

    “The Chinese Security Law” adopts the principle of “presumption of fault” for the determination of directors’ joint and several liability in disputes over liability for misrepresentation, but due to the ambiguity of the standard of “fault” in the legislation, as well as the influence of the prior procedure requirement of administrative and criminal punishment in the past, the judicial practice often lacks effective argumentation for the determination of directors’ fault. Trial authorities often directly find directors at fault based on existing administrative or criminal penalties or the lack of the standard of duty of care. The People’s Court should not be bound by administrative or criminal liability and should conduct an independent review of civil liability. It is necessary to differentiate the subjective mentality of directors and make specific judgments on whether the director with a “negligence” mentality has violated the duty of care on the basis of statutory law. And courts should not equate the duty of due diligence with the duty of care, but should make a comprehensive judgment according to the director’s professional background and specific job contents. On the basis of recognizing the reasonable reliance of directors and extending the subject matter of exemptions from liability to all directors, the boundaries of the determination of the director’s fault shall be determined, and a fair and accurate decision shall be made of the elements of fault in the liability of directors.

  • Open Access | Article 2023-12-07 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/28/20231319

    Chinese Dianping App Users’ Perceptions of Inauthentic User-Generated Information on the Platform: Exploring Attitudes and Behaviors

    Third-party review platforms have revolutionized consumer decision-making in the digital age, with (Dianping) serving as a notable example in China. Dianping, which was established in 2003 and offers user-generated content (UGC) on a variety of businesses, has emerged as a key player in the Chinese consumer experience. However, with its popularity, Dianping has also become a battleground for inauthentic information, including incentivized reviews and manipulated rankings. This research investigates Chinese Dianping app users’ perceptions of inauthentic information on the platform. This study investigates ten participants’ understanding of inauthentic content, their reactions to creating it, and the variables influencing their continued use of Dianping through semi-structured interviews. Participants recognize inauthentic content as containing elements of truth but with exaggeration and bias. They present contradictory attitudes toward generating this kind of content, motivated by individual benefits and explained cognitive dissonance. Despite concerns about authenticity, most participants maintain a level of trust in the platform due to its extensive content repository and a lack of superior alternatives. This study’s findings are consistent with the Uses and Gratifications Theory, revealing that users prioritize platform gratifications over authenticity concerns. The fact that Dianping can meet users’ informational, convenience, and communicatory needs outweighs the existence of inauthentic information. Despite its limitations, this research explored the complex attitudes and behaviors of Dianping users in navigating a platform where misinformation is pervasive and offers useful insights into how users interact with online review platforms.

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