Lecture Notes in Education Psychology and Public Media

- The Open Access Proceedings Series for Conferences

Volume Info.

  • Title

    Proceedings of the International Conference on Global Politics and Socio-Humanities

    Conference Date







    978-1-83558-357-9 (Print)

    978-1-83558-358-6 (Online)

    Published Date



    Enrique Mallen, Sam Houston State University

    Javier Cifuentes-Faura, University of Murcia


  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230007

    China's Conservatism and Its Impact on LGBT+ Teenagers

    This research paper examines China's conservatism and its impact on LGBT+ teenagers, a group facing significant challenges due to the conservative attitudes towards LGBT+. The research analyzed the predicaments experienced by LGBT+ youths in China, encompassing instances of prejudice, disconnection from society, and familial disapproval. Furthermore, this study thoroughly examined the difficulties that LGBT+ teenagers in China confront, including discriminatory attitudes, social exclusion, and family disapproval. Additionally, the research delineated prospective measures for augmenting the mental health and general well-being of LGBT+ adolescents, such as family-focused interventions and community-based support initiatives. The study also provides practical suggestions for better policies and interventions to address their health and well-being. Overall, this investigation advances the understanding of the challenges faced by LGBT+ teenagers in China and underscores the importance of offering them adequate support and resources to enhance their quality of life.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230008

    Is Saul Right That Lying Is No Worse than Misleading?

    In the moral philosophy field, whether lying is not inferior to misleading remains a highly contested topic. However, current studies in the moral studies field have not applied the deliberative approach and evaluative approach to analyze whether lying is preferable than misleading. Typical philosophers like Jennifer Saul argue that lying is no worse than misleading. This paper, nonetheless, will critically examine her theory by applying the deliberative approach and evaluative approach since no previous study has done so, and by conducting ethical justification according to the essence of lying and misleading. Meanwhile, this paper will address that successful lying is not inferior to merely intentional misleading, while misleading is superior to lying in exceptional situations, and that lying is inferior to mere attempted misleading, and successful lying is morally inferior to intended misleading.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230023

    Reforms on the WTO Dispute Settlement System from the Perspective of the Appellate Body

    With the deepening of the trade distribution between great powers, such as the US-China trade war, there are a lot of problems with the system of the WTO. The WTO should be reformed to address these problems. This paper specifies the reforms of the WTO Dispute Settlement System from the perspective of the Appellate Body. It expounds on the background of the suspension of the Appellate Body, the US's claims on the Appellate Body, and the necessity to function the Appellate Body. Finally, several measures to reform the Appellate Body, such as establishing the compliance committee and the vote selection system, monetary compensation, and recovering credibility, are put forward in this paper.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230026

    International Law and Institutions in Helping Resolve Tensions between Great Powers

    This paper aims to provide a variety of methods to help solve tensions between great powers by using international law and institutions. It is widely acknowledged that many global tensions between great powers will significantly influence the whole world and must be solved instantly. We still know little about resolving tensions by using international law and institutions. By analyzing current global events and the functions of international institutions like the WTO and the UN Security Council, the paper points out the flaws in international organizations and the need for improvements. The article also views the significance of states as a middle power to resolve tensions. This paper presents an important message that there are plenty of weaknesses in the international system; the conflicts between great power would be dealt with more efficiently and effectively if international institutions and international law made some refinements.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230027

    How Should The United Nations Security Council be Reformed to Better Ensure International Peace and Security?

    Concerning its original mandates and with consideration to its original aims, the United Nations Security Council has largely failed to fulfill its duty and hence has become ineffective. According to the two "timeless procedural obstacles": veto and membership concluded by Weiss, the permanent members are abusing their veto privilege, rendering the UNSC ineffective, while the current geopolitical landscape of the current and future world is not represented within the Council, which was established and fixed since 1945. Both problems are increasingly relevant in our multipolar, globalized 21st Century world. Based on these two main factors, the Security Council has been unable to effectively accomplish its paramount duty of maintaining international peace and security. Problems exposed by the Security Council desperately need practical, persistent, and immediate solutions and reforms as the world tries its best to prevent tensions from developing into regional and global conflicts. However, the future of the Security Council represents a gloomy picture. Unfortunately, proposals that can be potentially adopted will not effectively address the underlying problems, and recommendations aimed at addressing these problems are not likely to pass the legal barriers outlined in the United Nations Charter. Reforming the Security Council is a long and winding road. With the current level of global consensus, it won't be easy to see the United Nations Security Council reformed and reconstructed.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230028

    The Relationship Between Teenagers’ Sleep Length and Short-term Visual Memory

    Sleep is an essential factor that influences people’s regular life. People sometimes feel frustrated in their work or studies the next day when they did not sleep well the night before. It is an issue bothering people, and therefore, finding out the principles of how sleep affects body regulation is significant work scientists nowadays are doing. Studies have shown the potential relationship between sleep, memory, and cognitive functions. This paper aims to find the possible relationship between sleep length and cognitive functions, specifically visual short-term memory. In this research, the author designed a visual-short-term-memory test to identify the impact of sleep length on adolescents aged between 16 to 18 years old’s memory performances. The participants showed their degree of short-term visual memory by identifying emotions and locations of faces on the screen that appears in only 15ms. The test results showed that sleep length and participants' visual short-term memory is related but not significant, and the relationship between sleep length and recognition of each emotion is not substantial.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230031

    Prospective Memory and Sleep Quality

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between sleep quality and prospective memory in young adults. This investigation involved 115 cognitively healthy young adults aged between 17-28 years. Through scanning the QR code, participants completed two kinds of online questionnaires , including the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The author used the One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the independent samples t-test to examine the correlation between the average CAPM score and PSQI score. The study reveals that changes of sleep quality strongly affect prospective memory. There is a direct correlation between the two, i.e., the worse the sleep quality, the poorer the prospective memory. Those with PSQI score ≤ 5 had significantly lower prospective memory scores than those with PSQI score > 6. This work also aims to tests the reliability of measuring tools, thereby to provide a reference for the filed of neuroscience research.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230062

    A Literature Review on Social and Cultural Factors That Increase the Likelihood of Mental Illness Development in Developing Countries

    Mental health issues have been widely proven crucial for social and economic development and well-being, remaining a significant challenge for developing countries. This paper aims to explore and discuss a number of social and cultural factors that contribute to the prevalence of mental illnesses in developing countries, including low social and economic status and low income, high unemployment and emigration levels, poorly developed mental healthcare system, high birth rate and fertility rate, high dependence on primary industry, low educational level, and stereotypes within society. Mechanisms of the above key risk factors are evaluated. This paper can be used to understand the current obstacles for developing countries to improve citizens’ mental well-being and livelihood and provide information for further interventions and policies to address mental health issues.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230065

    Obedience and Authoritarian Parenting Style in China

    The chief aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between authoritarian parenting style and obedience among the middle class of mainland China, meanwhile determining the effect of self-esteem as an intermediate between two variables. We will replicate the Milgram experiment on obedience in this study with a few altered conditions and the self-esteem questionnaire that Rosenberg developed. Derived from results presented in former research, our study suggests that there exists a correlation between authoritarian parenting style and obedience. Additionally, both variables have a significant relationship with self-esteem.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230081

    Efforts Made by International Organizations in Facing Challenges to International Governance--Regulating Armed Conflict by the United Nations and Regional Organizations

    This paper will discuss the challenges that international organizations face in global governance. The contents will be divided into three parts. The first part will define global governance, and then explain the challenges that scholars believe will be faced in realizing global governance. The second part will introduce international organizations, divided into the United Nations and regional organizations, and will focus on the various organizations of the United Nations. Finally, the third part will analyze the Syrian civil war in combination with the previous part. The content of this article will focus on intervention in armed conflict.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230084

    The International Legal Path to Carbon Neutrality under the Sustainable Development Goals

    This paper aims to study and analyze the progress towards carbon neutrality goals across different countries, and explore the significance of international institutions and organizations in fostering international cooperation. It also intends to shed light on the challenges faced in achieving these goals, focusing on areas like inter-country cooperation, technology transfer, and international supervision. Furthermore, this paper proposes enhancements to international laws and regulations, national responsibilities, and moral concepts in order to strengthen the global response to climate change. By doing so, we aim to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the global journey towards carbon neutrality, the roles of various actors in this journey, and the potential measures to improve this collective effort.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230085

    Role of International Arbitration in Resolving International Disputes and Analysis of Examples

    The international community often uses international arbitration to resolve international disputes, and in arbitration, the parties often challenge the jurisdiction of the arbitration. This paper first discusses the three characteristics of international arbitration and four main types of international arbitration public organizations and then addresses the issues associated with the jurisdiction of international arbitration. In this part, it includes the definition as well as the scope of jurisdiction, and the factors considered in establishing it are mentioned, also the current problems of jurisdiction. In the second part, the paper discusses and analyzes today’s jurisdictional disputes through four international arbitration cases related to territory and sea. These cases discuss the conditions for the use and scope of compulsory jurisdiction and the treatment of arbitrations traditionally outside the jurisdiction of the court by a particular court are addressed, and the cases also deal with the problem of who decides if the arbitral tribunal has jurisdiction. About final section, discusses by way of example, the gradual expansion of arbitration jurisdiction today and the many problems that may exist as a result of this trend, such as the pressures placed on arbitrators and arbitral tribunals and implications for the nature of arbitral tribunals.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230086

    Methods to Improve State Compliance in International Legal System: Focusing on Theoretical and Practical Fields

    Improvements in state compliance with international legal rules have been the focus of numerous research papers since the effectiveness of international law depends on state adherence to international legal rules. This paper uses the Managerial School, Reputational Theory, and Paris Agreement to emphasize some key points relating to existing improvement methods. The key points include rational managerial methods in the international community, the importance of reputation and information transparency, the leading of influential nations, and international institutions' roles. Results from the solutions suggest that national interests and self-regulation are central ideas of state adherence. This study also offers supporting evidence of the central ideas and investigates theoretical and practical methods to improve state compliance with international law.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230087

    Involvement of National Courts in the Recognition of Investor-state Dispute Settlement Awards--A Comparative Analysis of ICSID and UNCITRAL

    This paper examines the differences between the ICSID Convention and the UNCITRAL mechanism regarding national court involvement in ISDS. While ICSID prohibits recourse to domestic courts and offers annulment mechanisms, UNCITRAL cases may involve federal courts interpreting tribunal decisions without institutional support and court discretion for vacating awards. The paper analyzes the involvement of national courts under ICSID and UNCITRAL, discusses the debate on rebalancing between states and foreign investors, and provides suggestions for reforming the ICSID. It also highlights challenges in enforcing arbitration awards and the potential risks of politicization in ISDS. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for a uniform and consistent approach to ensure legal coherence and effectiveness in ISDS.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230088

    The Reinforcement of UN Agencies in Improving National Compliance with International Law

    This study focuses on how states follow international law under the authority of UN bodies. The body paragraph begins by describing the rights and roles of three bodies: The security council, The UN general assembly, and The International Court of Justice. Their enforcement mechanisms are described separately, and case studies are made. This is the first three paragraphs of the body paragraph. The fourth paragraph is written around the proposition, which is a discussion part, firstly to make an overall evaluation of the three institutions, then to compare the advantages and disadvantages, and finally to propose the areas that need to be reformed, and how to strengthen the compliance of countries with international law.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230092

    Rejection and Childhood Abuse During Early-Stage Family Communication under Cross-Cultural Background to Avoidant Personality Disorder

    When it comes to personality disorders, does rejection and childhood abuse during early-stage family communication under cross-cultural background contribute to Avoidant Personality Disorders? Although Avoidant Personality Disorder (AVPD) is a common disorder that is related to significant stress, inadequacy, and disability, yet it is poorly studied with the presence of family factors, and only minimal or none has studied the impact of early-stage family communication under cross-cultural backgrounds. In this work, 178 participants growing up under a Chinese parenting background and 178 participants growing under an American parenting background answered a questionnaire about the several negative experiences that happened during three childhood age periods and wrote open-ended narratives. Under both cultures, rejection, and childhood abuse both affect to the development of Avoidant Personality Disorder. For children growing under an American parenting styles are more vulnerable when exposed to frequent rejection and childhood abuse from their guardians, as compared to Chinese children. While experiments have also shown that Asian student samples hold the highest rate on the Authoritarian parenting style out of the 3 parental control styles, whereas the American student sample act completely the opposite; the development of a child’s personality is based on schemas formed during early-stage family communications: the more the environment disadvantaged a child of its needs, the stronger the schemas will become on the negative side, with higher the likelihood of having personality disorders. These findings support the view that rejection and childhood abuse effect the growth of Avoidant Personality Disorder, and Children under American-parenting styles are more vulnerable to it as to Chinese children.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230095

    Balancing Data Protection and Data Utilization: Global Perspectives and Trends

    The exponential growth of personal data in the digital era has raised significant concerns regarding data protection and privacy. This work delves into the global perspectives and trends surrounding data protection laws, data security, cross-border data transfers, and data subjects' rights. It emphasizes the importance of balancing data utilization for economic benefits with safeguarding individuals' personal data. As the risks revealed by high-profile incidents, such as the Cambridge Analytica/Facebook scandal, Equifax data breach, and Yahoo data breaches, the hazards associated with unauthorized data exploitation have been underscored. The work examines the impact of the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the proliferation of data protection legislation worldwide. It explores three international trends in data protection and utilization, including balancing personal data protection and data value utilization, promoting the sharing and utilization of public data, and establishing jurisdictional control over overseas data. However, providing an extraterritorial effect in data protection regulation faces challenges rooted in state sovereignty and non-interference. Evaluating the legitimacy of such claims requires consideration of international law sources, international conventions, customs, and general legal principles. Moreover, the benefit orientation of enterprises and technological progress limits the effectiveness of the "Brussels Effect," leading to jurisdiction-specific differentiation and fragmenting the global market.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230096

    An Analysis of the Implementation of International and Japanese Government Countermeasures Before and after COVID-19

    In the aftermath of COVID-19, countries are on their way of recovery and rejuvenation on different extents. During this process, the author started to reflect on many problems revealed in the pandemic and try to clarify future direction. This paper analyzed how Japan reacted to COVID-19 and embodied resilience from different perspectives of social and mental health, the food system, international efforts, and domestic policy, providing a clear panorama of Japan’s countermeasure. Japan successfully responded to the crisis on some extent. The government intervened less on citizens’ casual activity and provided conditions for the development of resilience. Traditional culture and high stress cause anxiety of youth and healthcare workers. The food market maintained stable supply through direct market and promotion of a network of farmers. The national policy followed the direction of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR), but the latter is not clear and constructive enough. However, Japan designed National Resilience to mend this imitation.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230097

    The Reform of the Veto Power System of the UN Security Council--Under the Background of Russia-Ukraine Conflict

    This paper is focused on the topic of the restructuring of the UN Security Council’s power, especially on the means of restricting the veto power. The analysis will based on the Russia—Ukraine conflict since 2013. A new debate procedure in 2022, stipulated that once permanent members exercise their veto power, it would trigger a meeting of the General Assembly, as a reference, introduce some means to deal with the tough situation we meet. The reform plan includes adding the procedure of prior consent with reference to the post-defense system, expanding the size of the Security Council, introducing the avoidance system, and expanding the scope of procedural matters. In the constantly changing world landscape and the pursuit of cooperation, calling for better use of the veto power to enable international organizations, including the United Nations, to serve human society better.

  • Open Access | Article 2024-04-18 Doi: 10.54254/2753-7048/44/20230099

    An Analysis of the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Regional Inequality in China

    The aim of this paper is to examine the phenomenon of regional inequality in China under the broad context of the COVID-19 pandemic and also the post-pandemic time period. To diversify the sample, nine years of raw data (2013-2021) are included in this paper. Using the annual data from this time period, a 5-year calculation of the Gini coefficient from 2017 to 2021, will be calculated. To calculate, the Cumulative Change Model, the Lorenz Curve Framework, and the Cutting Method are applied. The raw data is first applied in the cumulative change equation; by graphing the results, the Lorenz Curve can be framed, which then can be used to calculate the Gini coefficient. The conclusion is that the COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the situation of regional inequality, as shown by an increase in the Gini coefficient.

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